The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The literature review, the methodology is present in the attachments should only include it in your work (it is already finished), that will be the one presented. The data to be used in the intervention can be found all in the data sheets and questionnaires in the attachments.In the review literature, you will find several references that serve as support to the work,complete: In the methodological part you should only include the critical questions, keep in mind that one of them is already present in the work,In the methods used, include the observation and describe it as required in the work.pages( abstract 250 word, Introduction 1.5 page, aspects to complete the critical question methodology 1 page, Intervention no more than 4 pages, Discussion/findings 3 pages, Furter reflection-conclusion 1.5 pages, Conclussion 1 page, references 1 page)
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
Action Research Manuscript Template This document serves as a guide for the requirements of the FINAL ACTION RESEARCH PAPER SUBMISSION – each section must be completed. USE APA and Double Space Cover page – Per APA – Title of Project, Your Name, University Name, Course Title Abstract – The abstract consists of a single, concise paragraph describing the problem, purpose, methods, and results of your study. Use no more than 250 words. Do not write the abstract until you are nearly finished writing, and then draft and redraft until it reads as is a clearly as possible. Introduction and Statement of the Problem (1.5 page maximum) An overview of the topic of interest and some background information on what your topic is about and how it relates to your school and community. The research question should be described here and remember that at it is to be answered at some point later in the paper. The goal of this section is to combine information about the setting of the action research project and the story behind the project into a smooth narrative that gets the reader engaged in your work’s context; the critical question is also introduced here. This section is usually about three to five pages long. The reader should have a good idea what the paper is about before finishing the first page. In the introduction, be cognizant of the following: Context. It is important to communicate to the reader a clear picture of the overall context of your AR project. The way you write the beginning of your paper lays the foundation (weak or strong) for the credibility and trustworthiness of your results and conclusions. Use storytelling. Instead of telling about your setting, illustrate it for the reader using stories and anecdotes taken from your notes, reflections, and data. Introduce major players in your analysis and results. Include active and layered description. Use multiple data sources to illustrate the setting and story behind the research. It must be clear to the reader that you are thoroughly immersed and engaged in your setting, and are therefore qualified to make credible analyses and interpretations. By referring to some data here you signal to the reader prior to the rest of the paper what type of research this is and how data were generally collected. Your story. It is also important to communicate to the reader a clear picture of yourself as the student teacher-researcher and how your own biases and experiences, and assumptions not only influence the study but also provided the fodder for your critical question. This may be woven into your illustration of context by including your own thoughts and memories. If there are key quotes that tell your story in another’s words, consider including the quote in this section. Make it clear how you arrived at your critical question. Your critical question. Bring your narrative to a climax in which you lay out your critical question in detail. Explain briefly what your action(s) consisted of. Tell briefly what your conclusions look like (don’t try to keep the reader in suspense). Literature Review of your Topic (3 page maximum) – Please take your literature review and synthesize the fine points, major themes into a maximum of 3 double spaced pages. What have other researchers found on your topic and in your area? The goal of this section is to introduce the reader to the major issues and/or themes learned from distant colleagues in the literature surrounding your critical question. By broadening your readers’ understanding of the major issues surrounding your research, you further solidify the credibility and trustworthiness of your work. This section is generally about three pages long. It is best to organize this section in one of two ways: either group the literature you are reviewing by themes or review the literature to provide an overview of the history leading up to the framework for your AR project. For example, one of our students organized her literature review according to these themes: 1) literature on the effectiveness of reading aloud; (2) strategies for increasing reading fluency and comprehension; and (3) meaningful reading fluency and comprehension assessment strategies. Another student organized her literature review as a historical overview of assessment in mathematics. Her review looked at the evolution of mathematical assessments to its present emphasis on problem-solving. Choose a format that will allow your readers to make the connection between your literature review and the AR study by establishing the theoretical foundation of the action, curriculum review, self-study, or ethnography you later describe in your AR paper. Note: This section will contain the majority of your citations, although we suggest bringing in the voices of the other researchers that you used in your literature review and also sprinkle that information throughout the paper. Remember that the research question you are exploring is tied to other research that’s already been done on this question. Methodology: My Action Research Project (4 pages maximum) This is a brief, concise section focusing your reader on the essential elements of your AR project. Assume a more professional style and tone to answer precisely: Research Site and Sample Population – A demographic description of sample Research Methods Used – Procedures Carried out what the critical question was, why the study was conducted, needs assessment, baseline data, where the project took place (research site: description of setting); Intervention (4 pages maximum) the interventions, analysis, or strategies you implemented to improve the “problem”; the data collection strategies and sources you used, when the data collection occurred (dates of implementation and/or data collection, length of study); how data collection was completed (data collection methods – in detail); the contents of the data sets you collected; the methods you used to analyze, interpret, and deconstruct the data; changes you made in your research design. This is a technical piece of the paper in which the reader gets an inside view of your research process. The idea here is that someone else could do the same research in their classroom by following your detailed descriptions of methodology. (Discussion/ Findings (3 page maximum) The goal of this section is to illustrate what you have learned as related to your critical question. Use your data to tell the story of your research and support your conclusions and emerging theories. This section is the heart and soul of your action research paper. This is where you tell your story. The section is rich in voice, style, and data. Remember the writing advice: show, don’t tell as you write. Interweave important data into your narrative. Include tables, charts, and quotes from interviews and your observations and reflections. Use your data to illustrate your ideas, and to provide the reader the freedom to draw his/her own conclusions as well. Explain how you interpret your data. Support your interpretations with examples. Use multiple data sources to support major assertions or ideas. Include multiple voices and perspectives, including those of critical colleagues, students, and “distant mentors” (literature review). Deconstruct your work, providing counterexamples and alternative interpretations. Further Reflection and Continuing Questions about My Action Research Journey (Conclusion) In this section, you bring themes together and begin the process of concluding your paper. Consider the following questions as writing prompts for this final reflection of your action research journey: What are some of the most important lessons you will take into your teaching career? What will you do differently next time? What additional questions did this research project pose for you? What was your action research journey like? How has this journey transformed your image of teacher, teaching, students, schools, learning? How have your paradigms been altered, confirmed, and/or challenged? What have you learned about action research? How has your definition of AR changed? How do you see yourself using this process in the future? Conclusion: How to Write a Memorable Conclusion Conclusions are tough: how do you end a good date, or say goodbye after a long visit? More than likely, you will write your concluding paragraph several times before you are satisfied. An effective way to write the concluding paragraph is to use a quote, either from someone famous, your students, other participants, or from your own researcher’s notebook. Another possibility is to end with a short story, a vignette, from your data that illustrates the central focus of the study. Sometimes, a combination works well. In the example below, the student teacher had conducted an action research project about homework. In his classroom, students either did not turn in homework or they turned in poor quality homework. He attempted two different kinds of homework strategies to improve both quality and completion rates. However, he found that a reward system which gave students “free time” points for turning in homework regardless of quality, trumped all his other homework strategies. This is how he concluded his piece: To conclude my research I decided to ask the entire class one question. “Would you rather earn homework points by turning in an assignment that you know you could do better on or sacrifice the homework points but get the best score in the class on a big assignment?” Seventy-six percent of the class said they would choose the homework points. Only six of the 25 students polled would take the top score. Students are getting mixed messages. They’re motivated to get the homework points even though we want them to produce their best work. They’re motivated by the wrong thing; completing assignments no matter what the quality is. Absolutely, they still struggle to complete their work, but they do understand that completing work is what is valued regardless of the quality. More than anything else, I’ve learned that students are smart. They learn early on in the school year what is important, and most students strive to achieve that. As a teacher, I need to be aware of this and careful not to send a message to my students that I don’t want them to receive. Students will provide us with the information we need to create the types of classrooms we want if we look for it. I credit the students for teaching me the lessons that I will take from this action research project, one of which is summarized by this quote, “The question educators need to ask is not how motivated their students are, but how their students are motivated” (Kohn, 1994, p. 3). This conclusion returns to the heart of the action research study. It summarizes the main lesson the student teacher/researcher learned. And, it encourages the reader to ask, “What kind of mixed messages do I send to my students?” This makes for a memorable final curtain call! References: Consult carefully with APA guidelines, or whatever other citation methods required in your program, to ensure that references are done correctly. References are yet another element of trustworthiness. Plagiarism is not only legally and ethically wrong; it cheapens the quality of your journey. Attend to references carefully. -Appendices A writer places in the appendices additional information that supports or illustrates points in the paper. Items in the appendices allow the reader to go deeper or gain a clearer view of what is being said in the main text. Appendices are important but they are not a “dumping ground.” For example, not all data goes in the appendices; however, a log of data sets may be appropriate. Not all student work would be placed in the appendices, but a sample that clarifies an assignment would be appropriate. Must include questionnaires, surveys, interview questions, pre and post tests, etc. used in the study Possible inclusions in the appendices include: a log of data sets or specific items from a data set; assessments; surveys, questionnaires, and interview questions; letters home (including how you gained permissions); lesson plans; artifacts. Note that anything placed in the appendices must be referenced in the text of the paper. Check the appropriate citation guidelines on how to do this.
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
Client: Student A Period: 06/01-06/20/2020 Demands and instructions presented Target Behavior Off-task behavior Topographic definition Defined as ignoring demands by avoiding eye contact with instructor and materials, and not following instructions by moving away from the area and/or making noises or vocalizing out of context. This behavior starts after 3 minutes of the delivery of the demand and ends when he complies, or the demand is removed. 15 14 13 12 11 10 Days 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Total per day 27% 20% 27% 33% 27% 20% 20% 13% 13% 20% 13% 20% 13% 7% 7% 7% 13% 7% Total per week 26% 17% 9%
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
Client: Student A Period: 05/10-05/30/2020 Demands and instructions presented Target Behavior Off-task behavior Topographic definition Defined as ignoring demands by avoiding eye contact with instructor and materials, and not following instructions by moving away from the area and/or making noises or vocalizing out of context. This behavior starts after 3 minutes of the delivery of the demand and ends when he complies, or the demand is removed. 15 14 13 12 11 10 Days 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Total per day 40% 33% 40% 47% 40% 47% 33% 40% 47% 33% 40% 33% 33% 40% 27% 33% 33% 27% 33% 27% 33% Total per week 40% 38% 33%
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
Client: Student B Period: 06/01-06/20/2020 Demands and instructions presented Target Behavior Off-task behavior Topographic definition Defined as ignoring demands by avoiding eye contact with instructor and materials, and not following instructions by moving away from the area and/or making noises or vocalizing out of context. This behavior starts after 3 minutes of the delivery of the demand and ends when he complies, or the demand is removed. 15 14 13 12 11 10 Days 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Total per day 20% 20% 13% 13% 20% 13% 13% 7% 13% 13% 7% 7% 7% 0% 7% 7% 0% 7% Total per week 17% 10% 5%
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
Client: Student B Period: 05/10-05/30/2020 Demands and instructions presented Target Behavior Off-task behavior Topographic definition Defined as ignoring demands by avoiding eye contact with instructor and materials, and not following instructions by moving away from the area and/or making noises or vocalizing out of context. This behavior starts after 3 minutes of the delivery of the demand and ends when he complies, or the demand is removed. 15 14 13 12 11 10 Days 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Total per day 33% 27% 40% 33% 27% 27% 33% 27% 40% 27% 33% 33% 40% 40% 27% 33% 20% 27% 20% 20% Total per week 31% 34% 25%
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera

The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
Intervention (4 pages maximum) the interventions, analysis, or strategies you implemented to improve the “problem”; Different behavioral antecedents and consequence interventions were implemented to decrease the off-task behaviors and increase the time on task. The behavioral antecedent interventions that were implemented are the delivery of reinforcement on a fixed-time (FT) schedule (sometimes referred to as noncontingent reinforcement or NCR), the high probability sequence, reducing task demands by modifying the length and/or difficulty of assignments, and provide choices. The behavioral consequence interventions that were implemented are Premack principle, differential negative reinforcement of alternative behaviors (DNRA) and reinforcement. What is missing is to explain the interventionsWe teach replacements skills (request for assistance or attention, time on task….) the data collection strategies and sources you used, when the data collection occurred (dates of implementation and/or data collection, length of study); Our research involved qualitative data source and quantitative data sources using a mixed-methods design. Quantitative: Questionnaire (Functional Behavior Assessment Tool) Graphs Data sheets Qualitative: Observation Dates of implementation and/or data collection, length of study: The study took six weeks from May 11 to June 20. The first two weeks (May 11-May 23) we record the data of off-task behaviors to construct a baseline for each student. The following weeks we implement the antecedent and consequence interventions and teach replacement skills in each session that we work with the students during distance learning sessions (from Monday to Saturday). how data collection was completed (data collection methods – in detail); the contents of the data sets you collected; the methods you used to analyze, interpret, and deconstruct the data; changes you made in your research design.
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
Off-task/On-task Behavior Autism leads to students having some form of off-task behavior, which affects their learning. Off-task behavior is where the student or child is engaging in inappropriate interactions with their immediate environment that is against the instruction. It is critical to understand how to increase the on-task behavior for autistic students when they are learning at home. The variety of interventions or intervention approaches that can be and have been effectively applied to disruptive, off-task behaviors is considerable. DuPaul, Wyandt, & Janusis (2011) provided a comprehensive review of these interventions, the most common of which were identified as medications and behavioral interventions. The behavioral interventions, those based on learning theory, were further characterized being antecedent- or consequence-based ones. Behavioral Antecedent and Consequent Strategies There are various behavioral antecedent and consequent strategies that can reduce the task refusal behavior (Pellecchia et al., 2020) and can be useful when the students are engaging in distance learning sessions at home. Behavioral antecedent strategies are the people, events, and things that come immediately before the problem behavior. In behavioral antecedent strategies, antecedent stimuli are manipulated to evoke appropriate behaviors to differentially reinforce them and reduce inappropriate behaviors that interfere with appropriate behaviors (Miltenberger,2013). A number of antecedent strategies have been developed to address off-task behaviors in children with autism. Four commonly utilized strategies to enhance on-task behavior are the delivery of reinforcement on a fixed-time (FT) schedule (sometimes referred to as noncontingent reinforcement or NCR), the high probability sequence, reducing task demands by modifying the length and/or difficulty of assignments, and giving students choices of which assignments or steps to complete first. NCR involves giving the student access to a reinforcer frequently enough that they are no longer motivated to exhibit disruptive behavior to obtain that same reinforcer. It consists of allowing students to take small breaks during the presentation of non-desirable tasks. Research has shown that NCR decrease disruptive behavior and increase the time engaged in tasks and the compliance to academic instructions (Carr et al., 2000; Kodak, Miltenberger, & Romaniuk, 2003; Waller, &  Higbee, 2010). High probability request (high-p) sequences consist of having students consistently comply with several directions to perform desirable behaviors, and that momentum persists when a subsequent direction is changed to a perceived undesirable behavior. High-p have been an effective intervention for improving compliance and work completion for students who display challenging behaviors (Maag, 2020). Reducing task demands by modifying the length and/or difficulty of assignments has been proven to decrease triggering behaviors in children with ASD. Reducing task length, allows children with ASD to decrease any frustrations they could be feeling from the lengthy, difficult task thus minimizing challenging behaviors that may be exhibited for the purpose of escaping the situation (Luke, 2017). Offering children with ASD choices between activities (e.g., working on math or English), instructional materials (e.g., using a pen or pencil), or environmental arrangements (e.g., where to sit) has been shown to reduce challenging behavior maintained by escape from task demands (Rispoli et al., 2013). Behavioral consequent strategies are techniques that can be used after the behavior occurs to decrease the reinforcement and provide the student with alternative behavior. Two behavioral consequence interventions that are effective in reducing off-task behaviors are Premack Principle and differential negative reinforcement of alternative behaviors (DNRA). Premack (1959, as cited in Maag, 2020) principle states that a high-probability behavior can be contingent upon the occurrence of a low-probability behavior. A high-probability behavior is one that students have a greater likelihood of engaging in when they have free access to preferred activities or objects. High preference activities will be used to reinforce the participation of the students in low preference activities (e.g., school assignments and homework). The differential negative reinforcement of alternative behaviors (DNRA) consists of allowing the students to exit the non-preferred activities for some minutes when they request a break in an appropriate manner (using his words appropriately or using a gesture). RDNA has been used in a wide variety of studies to decrease behavior problems maintained by negative reinforcement and to increase appropriate behaviors, which substitute for behavior problems (Golonka et al., 2000; Marcus y Vollmer, 1995; Piazza, Moes y Fisher, 1996, Roberts, Mace y Daggett, 1995; Etak Steege, 1990, as cited in Miltenberger, 2013). Reinforcement is a common effective practice that has been used in combination with the other strategies explained above. The teacher and parents may reinforce on task behaviors with praise or a token that would later be traded in for a desired reward. Reinforcement describes the connection between a student’s behavior and a consequence for that behavior. The consequence is only considered reinforcing if it increases the chance that the student will engage in the behavior again in the future (Wong et al., 2014). An example of using reinforcement in the classroom or at home is a teacher or parent providing an attention-seeking student with a high-five when the student completes a task. In this example, the student likes the attention received when he or she completes the task, and therefore is more likely to continue completing tasks, in order to keep getting those high-fives. Reinforcement is used when the behavior is positive, and the adult wants it to continue. Research showed that the use of positive reinforcement such as a positive behavior-specific note to take home increased on-task behavior of a first-grade student (Bayles, 2020). References Bayles, B. (2020). Using Positive Reinforcement to Increase On-Task Behavior of a First Grade. Eastern Illinois University Bernard, R., & Hammel, A. (2017). Good Teaching on Steroids: Assessments of Music Teaching and Learning with Students on the Autism Spectrum. Carr J.E., Coriaty S., Wilder D.A., Gaunt B.T., Dozier C.L., Britton L.N., Avina C., & Reed C.L. (2000). A review of “noncontingent” reinforcement as treatment for the aberrant behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 21(5), 377-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-4222(00)00050-0 Kodak T., Miltenberger R.G, & Romaniuk C. (2003). The effects of differential negative reinforcement of other behavior and noncontingent escape on compliance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 379–382. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2003.36-379 LeBlanc, L. A., Raetz, P. B., Sellers, T. P. & Carr, J. E. (2016). A proposed model for selecting measurement procedures for the assessment and treatment of problem behavior. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9(1), 77-83. Maag, J.W. (2020). Are High-Probability Request Sequences as Low an Intensity Intervention as Portrayed? Journal of Education and Learning; 9(2). https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v9n2p1 Miltenberger, R.G. (2013). Behavior Modification. Principles & Procedures. Piramide Editions. Rispoli, M., Lang, R., Neely, L., Camargo, S., Hutchins, N., Davenport, K., & Goodwyn, F. (2013). A comparison of within- and across-activity choices for reducing challenging behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Behavioral Education, 22(1), 66-83. doi:10.1007/s10864-012-9164-y Waller, R.D., & and Higbee, T.S. (2010). The effects of fixed-time escape on inappropriate and appropriate classroom behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43(1), 149–153. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2010.43-149 DuPaul, G.J.; Weyandt, L.L..; Janusis, G.M. (2011). ADHD in the Classroom: Effective Intervention Strategies. Theory Into Practice, 50(1), 35-42. Luke, K.A. (2017). Strategies to assist in decreasing escape-maintained behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (Master’s Thesis). Pellecchia, M., Marcus, S. C., Spaulding, C., Seidman, M., Xie, M., Rump, K., … & Mandell, D. S. (2020). Randomized trial of a computer-assisted Intervention for children with autism in schools. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 59(3), 373-380.
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
Running head: NEEDS ASSESSMENT 0 Needs Assessment Summary The research will be focusing on increasing on-task behavior in students who have autism during the home learning school period. During the research, there will be two assessment instruments that are appropriate for use. The first one is the Functional Assessment Screening Tool (FAST). This tool is important because it allows the researcher to discover the various factors that have an impact on the specific problem behavior. The second tool that is used is Event Recording. The Event Recording Tool gives the researcher the opportunity to document all of the behaviors in real-time (Leblanc et al., 2016). The tools are important compared to the others because they complement each other when it comes to data collection. The Event Recording tool is important as it can frequently record the occurrence of a particular behavior of interest. The use of these tools will assist in identifying several vital aspects that will inform the best way to increase the on-task behaviors with autism particularly when looking at the task refusal behaviors. The two tools are also easy to understand and will require minimal training when it comes to collecting the valuable data. The assessment involves various students who are learning from home and have autism. The students are more likely to engage in off-task behaviors. The researcher seeks to alter the task refusal behaviors that have been portrayed by the students. The off-task behavior is detrimental to the learning outcomes of the students (Leblanc et al., 2016). It is important to make sure that the students are controlled so that they acquire new skills and become independent. The first tool that was used was the FAST tool to assess the participants and identify the right ones for the study. The second tool, Events Recording Tool, was used in giving insight on current learning gaps in home. The Events Recording tool was used over a period to carefully collect the data. References LeBlanc, L. A., Raetz, P. B., Sellers, T. P., & Carr, J. E. (2016). A proposed model for selecting measurement procedures for the assessment and treatment of problem behavior. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9(1), 77-83.
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
Antecedent Behavior Consequence The student was doing a math task involving multiple steps The student moved away from the table The student’s mother yelled at the student and said him that he should finish the task The mother told the student that it was time to start his school tasks He avoided eye contact with his mother and continued watching TV The mother allowed the student to continue watching TV Observation ABC Recording STUDENT A STUDENT B Antecedent Behavior Consequence The student was doing a social studies task of large duration The student began to make loud noises and vocalizations out of context The student’s father told the student that he could finish the task later The father presented the student different school tasks and told him the order in which he should complete them The student avoided eye contact with materials and ran away from the table The father gave the students 10 minutes to start to complete the tasks.
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
Part II The individuals who participated in the research were students with autism that are currently learning from home. This batch of students is often characterized by a high propensity for indulging in off-task behaviors rather than on-task activities. Thus, rather than deal with the prescribed school work, they would rather do unrelated stuff. The researcher was seeking to establish if there is a way he/she can decrease the participants’ off-task behaviors while increasing their on-task behaviors. More so, the researcher wanted to alter the participants’ task refusal behaviors. This was crucial as it would establish techniques that can be used by educators to enhance the learning behaviors of students with autism. Excessively indulging in off-task behaviors is very detrimental to learning outcomes. Additionally, it lowers the students’ ability to socialize, acquire new skills, and be independent. The assessment was proctored during the Covid-19 outbreak when children are increasingly being home-schooled. This was an opportune moment since it fitted the research’s criteria of investigating children that are learning from home. The assessment took place in the students’ homes with the consent of their parents or caregivers. The process of proctoring the assessment started with the researcher explaining to the students, their parents/caregivers, and educators about what was going to happen during the research process. Thereafter, the researcher administered the FAST tool. The results of this tool were used to assess the participants and identify the ones that would best suit the objectives of the research. Thereafter, the researcher used the Events Recording Tool. This tool was used over a period of one month to carefully collect as much data as possible. The data would, later on, be analyzed to give insight into the gaps that exist in the current learning model at homes. Thereafter, solutions would be given on how to enhance the learning experience and outcomes for the students with autism. Reference LeBlanc, L. A., Raetz, P. B., Sellers, T. P., & Carr, J. E. (2016). A proposed model for selecting measurement procedures for the assessment and treatment of problem behavior. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9(1), 77-83.
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
ACTION RESEARCH PLAN 5 Action Research Plan Action Research Plan Summary of findings and research questions Recommended action targeted to findings Who is responsible for the action? T=Therapist S=Student, C=Caregiver(s) Who needs to be consulted or informed? Who will monitor/collect data? Timeline Resources 1.What factors influence the students’ off-task behaviors.      T, C: Functional Assessment Screening Tool (FAST). Observation Throughout distance learning sessions  Datasheets 1.1 Increase of duration, amount, and complexity of the tasks. 1.1-1.2 Implement behavioral antecedent interventions such as noncontingent reinforcement or NCR: providing frequent breaks during academic tasks, the high probability sequence, and auditive stimulus (classical music). 1.1-1.4 T, C 1.1-1.4 C 1.1-1.4 T 1.2 A non-stimulating learning environment.   Audio 1.3 Lack of the use of reinforcers to increase on-task behaviors. 1.3-1.4 Implement behavioral consequent interventions such as Premack Principle and differential negative reinforcement of alternative behaviors (DNRA).             1.4 Parental reinforcement of their children’s escape behaviors and avoidance of academic assignments.  2.0 What is the effect of antecedent and consequent strategies on the students’ off-task behaviors? 2.1 Compare the graphed data of students’ off-task behaviors before and after the implementation of the interventions. T, C C T: Observation Throughout distance learning sessions Datasheets of frequency and graphs 3.0 What is the effect of antecedent and consequent strategies on the students’ on-task behaviors? 3.1 Compare the graphed data of students’ on-task behaviors before and after the implementation of the interventions.  T, C C   T: Observation Throughout distance learning sessions  Datasheets of frequency and graphs References Mills, G.E. (2018). Action Research. A Guide for the Teacher Researcher. Pearson.
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
NEEDS ASSESSMENT Needs Assessment Assignment Needs Assessment Assignment Part I To facilitate the research on “increasing on-task behavior in students with autism during the home-learning school period,” two assessment instruments have been selected. First, there is the Functional Assessment Screening Tool (FAST) tool. The FAST tool was selected because it allows the researcher to find out the factors, which have an impact on the incidence of specific problem behavior. Second, there is the Event Recording tool. The Event Recording tool was selected because it allows the researcher to document behaviors in real-time. These two tools were selected over other instruments because of their efficiency in data collection, in addition to how they complement each other. The FAST tool will be utilized as an initial screening tool for the participants of the research and note if they are the right fit for the research objective. The Event Recording tool is handy for the research since it offers data regarding the frequency of occurrence of a given behavior. LeBlanc, Raetz, Sellers, and Carr (2016) assert that this frequency is a specific and significant behavioral dimension. Together, these two tools will give comprehensive results for the analysis of the identified problem behavior. Through the use of these two tools for the research, the anticipated findings are that the researcher will identify several vital aspects that will inform his/her decision on the best way to increase on-tasks behaviors in students with autism while reducing their task refusal behaviors. Overall, the process that resulted in the establishment of the two needs assessment instrument started with the identification of the research objective. The researcher then assessed the need for training for each needs assessment instrument. Finally, the researcher selected the instruments that required minimal training but would offer a way of obtaining valuable data to inform the needs of the study. Reference LeBlanc, L. A., Raetz, P. B., Sellers, T. P., & Carr, J. E. (2016). A proposed model for selecting measurement procedures for the assessment and treatment of problem behavior. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9(1), 77-83.
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
21 Academic Journal Articles: APA Citation (Refer to APA Writer’s Manual, 6th ed.) Citation here Aljadeff-Abergel, E., Schenk, Y., Walmsley, C., Peterson, S., Frieder, J., & Acker, N. (2015). The effectiveness of self-management interventions for children with autism — A literature review. Researching Autism Spectrum Disorders, 18, 34–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2015.07.001 Selection Explanation Source: Primary or Secondary Primary Information Classification: (Self-contained study/ Research findings / Professional Association/ Unanalyzed Data / Compiled Statistics, etc.) Research findings regarding the manner in which self-management interventions work for children with autism. How and why is this information pertinent to your selected topic? It illustrates the crucial point that is the role of self-management in execution of academic tasks. Academic Journal Articles: APA Citation (Refer to APA Writer’s Manual, 6th ed.) Citation here Aljadeff-Abergel, E., Schenk, Y., Walmsley, C., Peterson, S., Frieder, J., & Acker, N. (2015). The effectiveness of self-management interventions for children with autism — A literature review. Researching Autism Spectrum Disorders, 18, 34–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2015.07.001 Selection Explanation Issues / Topics Covered self-management interventions for children with autism Author(s): Aljadeff-Abergel, E., Schenk, Y., Walmsley, C., Peterson, S., Frieder, J., & Acker, N Research Question(s) addressed: The manner in which task avoidance and management go together Research Subjects: (pre-K, 9th graders, elementary school students, etc.) School children Research setting: (Public school, 3rd grade class, Charter school, adult learning center, etc.) Clinical Trials Methodology: Literature Review of Clinical Analysis Findings: self-management was found to be effective Conclusions: Self-management is a crucial aspect in ensuring the improvement of performers in certain settings Special Circumstances/Limitations: The studies only proved successful under clinical settings and not natural settings Future Implications: There is a need to demonstrate its effectiveness in natural settings How and why is this information pertinent to your selected topic? Effectiveness of self-management for individuals with autism was evaluated 2nd Article Academic Journal Articles: APA Citation (Refer to APA Writer’s Manual, 6th ed.) Citation here: Briesch, A. M., Daniels, B., & Beneville, M. (2019). Unpacking the term “self-management”: Understanding intervention applications within the school-based literature. Journal of Behavioral Education, 28(1), 54–77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-018-9303-1 Selection Explanation Source: Primary or Secondary Primary Information Classification: (Self-contained study/ Research findings / Professional Association/ Unanalyzed Data / Compiled Statistics, etc.) Professional Association How and why is this information pertinent to your selected topic? analyze the extant literature in order to define the various ways in which self-management interventions have been developed and evaluated Academic Journal Articles: APA Citation (Refer to APA Writer’s Manual, 6th ed.) Citation here: Briesch, A. M., Daniels, B., & Beneville, M. (2019). Unpacking the term “self- management”: Understanding intervention applications within the school-based literature. Journal of Behavioral Education, 28(1), 54–77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-018-9303-1 Selection Explanation Issues / Topics Covered Self-management during tasks completion with regard to literature Author(s): Briesch, A. M., Daniels, B., & Beneville, M. Research Question(s) addressed: the effectiveness of self-management interventions to improve student behavior Research Subjects: (pre-K, 9th graders, elementary school students, etc.) School Students Research setting: (Public school, 3rd grade class, Charter school, adult learning center, etc.) Clinical review Methodology: Literature Review Findings: There was also often a substantial degree of effect size heterogeneity Conclusions: There is a need to implement self- management in line with individual characteristics Special Circumstances/Limitations: The literature reviewed is subject to the tests performed. Future Implications: There is a need to conduct future research on the implementation of the strategies in self-management How and why is this information pertinent to your selected topic? This information is important because it analyzed research regarding the manner in which self-management should be implemented. this is crucial in determining the solutions toward task avoidance. 3rd Article Academic Journal Articles: APA Citation (Refer to APA Writer’s Manual, 6th ed.) Citation here: Aloe, A. M., Shisler, S. M., Norris, B. D., Nickerson, A. B., & Rinker, T. W. (2014). A multivariate meta-analysis of student misbehavior and teacher burnout. Educational Research Review, 12, 30–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edure v.2014.05.003 Selection Explanation Source: Primary or Secondary Primary Information Classification: (Self-contained study/ Research findings / Professional Association/ Unanalyzed Data / Compiled Statistics, etc.) Research analysis How and why is this information pertinent to your selected topic? This information is important to the selected topic because it provides an outlook on the effect of lack of self-management to teachers considering different variables. Academic Journal Articles: APA Citation (Refer to APA Writer’s Manual, 5th ed.) Citation here: Aloe, A. M., Shisler, S. M., Norris, B. D., Nickerson, A. B., & Rinker, T. W. (2014). A multivariate meta-analysis of student misbehavior and teacher burnout. Educational Research Review, 12, 30–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edure v.2014.05.003 Selection Explanation Issues / Topics Covered The relation between student misbehavior and teacher burnout. Author(s): Aloe, A. M., Shisler, S. M., Norris, B. D., Nickerson, A. B., & Rinker, T. W. Research Question(s) addressed: The relationship among student misbehavior and burnout is moderate. Research Subjects: (pre-K, 9th graders, elementary school students, etc.) Teachers and students Research setting: (Public school, 3rd grade class, Charter school, adult learning center, etc.) Student learning Methodology: Sample analysis Findings: The relationship varies for the different burnout dimensions Conclusions: The relationship helps in establishing practical solutions to the Special Circumstances/Limitations: It is limited to the manner in which teachers handle the respective student behaviors Future Implications: It demonstrates the manner in which there is need to seek practical solutions to student behaviors How and why is this information pertinent to your selected topic? This information is important to the selected topic because it provides an outlook on the effect of lack of self-management to teachers considering different variables. 4th Article Academic Journal Articles: APA Citation (Refer to APA Writer’s Manual, 6th ed.) Citation here George, K. (2016). Evaluating the effects of formal corrective feedback on off-task/on-task behavior of mild intellectually disabled students: an action research study (Thesis doctoral, Capella University). https://search-proquest-com.ucamia.cobimet4.org/docview/1767788724 Selection Explanation Source: Primary or Secondary Primary Information Classification: (Self-contained study/ Research findings / Professional Association/ Unanalyzed Data / Compiled Statistics, etc.) Research findings How and why is this information pertinent to your selected topic? The goal of the study looked to identify a potential strategy for addressing the behavioral deficiencies commonly displayed by students classified as mild intellectually disabled as well as any other student determined to have behavioral issues within the classroom setting. Specifically, the study determines if formal corrective feedback influences on the off-task/on-task behavior of mild intellectually disabled students. With this information, we know about treatment choices (strategies) that we can use to change the task refusal behaviors of a student with special needs and increase his compliance with activities and demands. Academic Journal Articles: APA Citation (Refer to APA Writer’s Manual, 6th ed.) George, K. (2016). Evaluating the effects of formal corrective feedback on off-task/on-task behavior of mild intellectually disabled students: an action research study (Thesis doctoral, Capella University). https://search-proquest-com.ucamia.cobimet4.org/docview/1767788724 Selection Explanation Issues / Topics Covered Formal corrective feedback, off-task behaviors, on-task behaviors, specific types of off-task behavior. Author(s): George, Kevin Research Question(s) addressed: RQ1: Is there a significant difference between the frequency of off-task behaviors when formal corrective feedback is not applied and the frequency of off-task behaviors when formal corrective feedback is applied? RQ2: Is there a significant difference between the frequency of on-task behaviors when formal corrective feedback is not applied and the frequency of on-task behaviors when formal corrective feedback is applied? RQ3: Does formal corrective feedback have a stronger or weaker effect on specific types of off-task behavior? Research Subjects: (pre-K, 9th graders, elementary school students, etc.) Fifteen tenth graders classified as Mild Intellectually Disabled (MID). Research setting: (Public school, 3rd grade class, Charter school, adult learning center, etc.) Public school (self-contained school). Methodology: Mixed research methodology. Findings: The study’s results revealed that formal corrective feedback had a significant effect on the off-task/on-task behavior of students classified as being mild intellectually disabled. In this study, the effect appears to translate into a significant decrease in off-task behavior and a significant increase in on-task behavior for all students. This study reduced students’ off-task behavior and improved their on-task behavior through improving their understanding of what they were doing wrong behaviorally in the classroom. Conclusions: Formal corrective feedback effects students’ off-task behavior as well as students’ on-task behavior. The behavioral frequency recordings collected revealed a reduction in off-task behavior and an increase in on-task behavior during the phase of the study in which formal corrective feedback was provided to each student. Formal corrective feedback appeared to have a strong effect on the off-task behaviors of daydreaming/work delay, preoccupied with object or task, laughing out, talking out and sleeping. Formal corrective feedback appeared to have a weak effect on the off-task behavior of improperly seated/out of seat. Special Circumstances/Limitations: The number of participants available (fifteen students) limits the amount of data available for collection and establishment of more definitive results. The exposure of the participants to other teachers and classroom settings in addition to the setting of the study (social science class) could have impacted the study significantly. For consistency purposes, the classroom teacher made all observations. Due to the fact that the one teacher conducted all observations, accuracy may be an issue. Future Implications: The knowledge to be gained from the action research conducted as a part of this study will extend the current understanding of the effect of corrective feedback on the off-task/on-task behavior of students categorized as MID. This extended knowledge will benefit teachers of all students, and specifically those working with students classified as MID. This small-scale study that generated significant findings may lead to the same study being conducted on a larger scale. How and why is this information pertinent to your selected topic? The goal of the study looked to identify a potential strategy for addressing the behavioral deficiencies commonly displayed by students classified as mild intellectually disabled as well as any other student determined to have behavioral issues within the classroom setting. Specifically, the study determines if formal corrective feedback influences on the off-task/on-task behavior of mild intellectually disabled students. With this information, we know about treatment choices (strategies) that we can use to change the task refusal behaviors of a student with special needs and increase his compliance with activities and demands. 5th Article Academic Journal Articles: APA Citation (Refer to APA Writer’s Manual, 6th ed.) Stahr, B., Cushing, D., Lane, K., & Fox, J. (2006). Efficacy of a function-based intervention in decreasing off-task behavior exhibited by a student with ADHD. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(4), 201-211. https://eds-b-ebscohost-com.ucamia.cobimet4.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=2&sid=8e6ba527-fd1c-4cd3-98ef-2f4b24fe6c52%40sessionmgr101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=edsgcl.152639363&db=edsgao Selection Explanation Source: Primary or Secondary Primary Information Classification: (Self-contained study/ Research findings / Professional Association/ Unanalyzed Data / Compiled Statistics, etc.) Research findings How and why is this information pertinent to your selected topic? The study examined the effects of a function-based intervention implemented with a student, Shawn, who had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behavioral problems, and a speech and language impairment.  The function-based intervention included a communication system, a self-monitoring component, and extinction. Through this study, we know about interventions that are effective in reduce off-task behaviors of a child with special needs. Therefore, we can use those interventions in our research. Academic Journal Articles: APA Citation (Refer to APA Writer’s Manual, 6th ed.) Citation here: Stahr, B., Cushing, D., Lane, K., & Fox, J. (2006). Efficacy of a function-based intervention in decreasing off-task behavior exhibited by a student with ADHD. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(4), 201-211. https://eds-b-ebscohost-com.ucamia.cobimet4.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=2&sid=8e6ba527-fd1c-4cd3-98ef-2f4b24fe6c52%40sessionmgr101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=edsgcl.152639363&db=edsgao Selection Explanation Issues / Topics Covered Function-based intervention, off-task behavior Author(s): Stahr, Brenna Cushing, Danielle Lane, Kathleen Fox, James Research Question(s) addressed: The intent of this study was to extend the functional assessment-based intervention literature by demonstrating application of the procedures with a student who had multiple disabilities, including ADHD, an internalizing behavior disorder, and a speech and language disorder. Specifically, descriptive functional assessment procedures were used to identify the function of Shawn’s off-task and disruptive behaviors. Next, a function-based intervention using self-monitoring, which included a system to facilitate communication and consequence-based (extinction) strategies, was designed and tested. Research Subjects: (pre-K, 9th graders, elementary school students, etc.) A 9-year-old African American that received special education services under the category of other health impaired in a fourth-grade classroom fourth-grade classroom. Research setting: (Public school, 3rd grade class, Charter school, adult learning center, etc.) A self-contained school serving students with emotional and behavioral problems. Methodology: Mixed research methodology Findings: Functional assessment data indicated that Shawn’s off-task behavior was maintained by attention (positive reinforcement) and escape from tasks (negative reinforcement). A function-based intervention including a communication system, a self-monitoring component, and extinction resulted in improvements in Shawn’s behavior. The classroom teachers and Shawn rated the intervention favorably. Conclusions: Results of descriptive functional assessment procedures indicated that Shawn’s off-task behavior was maintained by both attention (positive reinforcement) and escape (negative reinforcement). An intervention package including a communication system, a self-monitoring component, and extinction was designed to meet both these functions, in addition to addressing his anxiety and speech and language problems. A multiple-baseline design with a withdrawal component indicated that the intervention was effective in increasing on-task behavior in language arts and math. When the intervention was introduced in both settings, on-task behavior increased to twice that of baseline in language and five times that of baseline in math. Despite the limited data on implementation and the variable implementation, student outcome data suggest that the intervention met the intended objective of increasing Shawn’s on-task behavior. Social validity data also indicate that the intervention was generally acceptable to the therapist, lead teacher, paraeducator, and Shawn.  Special Circumstances/Limitations: Only a comparatively small amount of the treatment integrity data was collected, thereby preventing a more precise estimate of the extent to which all components of the intervention were implemented as designed.  Data were collected using partial-interval recording, which may have overestimated the level of engagement. A more conservative approach would have been to assess engagement using a whole interval recording procedure.  Although on-task behavior improved in math, the level of academic engagement was still below 80%, the average academic engagement level of typically developing students. Therefore, although levels of engagement improved and the participants viewed the intervention as socially valid, there was still room for improvement in math.  Although results suggest that the intervention was associated with higher levels of task engagement, this study did not assess student achievement. Future Implications: This study contributes to the literature indicating the effectiveness of a specific intervention package based on the assessed function of a student’s challenging behavior. In that sense it lends further validation to the effectiveness of interventions based on careful, systematic functional behavior assessments. Also, this study further contributes to the empirical base of techniques effective with ADHD students implemented by natural environment agents under naturalistic classroom conditions, specifically addressing this issue in a student with multiple disabilities (ADHD, anxiety, and speech and language delay). As in this study, future behavioral intervention research can be substantially enhanced by evaluating interventions within both traditionally defined subject parameters (i.e., DSM diagnoses of behavior disorders) and more function-based assessment schemata (i.e., subjects whose behavior function is determined through systematic behavioral assessment) that are then matched to intervention components. How and why is this information pertinent to your selected topic? The study examined the effects of a function-based intervention implemented with a student, Shawn, who had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behavioral problems, and a speech and language impairment.  The function-based intervention included a communication system, a self-monitoring component, and extinction. Through this study, we know about interventions that are effective in reduce off-task behaviors of a child with special needs. Therefore, we can use those interventions in our research. 6th Article Academic Journal Articles: APA Citation (Refer to APA Writer’s Manual, 6th ed.) Faul1, A., Stepensky, K., & Simonsen, B. (2012). The effects of prompting appropriate behavior on the off-task behavior of two middle school students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(1), 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300711410702 Selection Explanation Source: Primary or Secondary Primary Information Classification: (Self-contained study/ Research findings / Professional Association/ Unanalyzed Data / Compiled Statistics, etc.) Research findings How and why is this information pertinent to your selected topic? The study investigates the effectiveness of prompting with middle school students in a general education setting. It demonstrates that prompts effectively decrease off-task behaviors. With this information, we know about treatment choices (strategies) that we can use to change the task refusal behaviors of the client subject of study. Academic Journal Articles: APA Citation (Refer to APA Writer’s Manual, 5th ed.) Faul1, A., Stepensky, K., & Simonsen, B. (2012). The effects of prompting appropriate behavior on the off-task behavior of two middle school students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(1), 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300711410702 Selection Explanation Issues / Topics Covered Prompting, precorrection, off-task behavior Author(s): Faul1, Aimee Stepensky, Karoline Brandi, Simonsen Research Question(s) addressed: Was there a functional relationship between teacher-delivered verbal prompts (independent variable) and off-task behavior (dependent variable) for two middle school students in a general education setting? Research Subjects: (pre-K, 9th graders, elementary school students, etc.) Two middle school students Research setting: (Public school, 3rd grade class, Charter school, adult learning center, etc.) Public school Methodology: A single-subject alternating treatment design. Findings: Study results document a decrease in off-task behavior with prompting. Conclusions: For both students, a teacher-delivered verbal prompt at the beginning of class was associated with a clear decrease in off-task behavior and an increase in on-task behavior in class. The levels of off-task behavior exhibited by both students during sessions without a prompt were comparable to the levels displayed during baseline. In contrast, the levels of off-task behavior exhibited by both students during sessions with a prompt were lower than levels exhibited during baseline or the no prompt condition. Special Circumstances/Limitations: -Attempts were made to randomize extraneous classroom variables (class subject, time of day, etc.) across conditions through random assignment (coin flip). However, schedule changes, which are typical in a middle school setting, occurred during the study. -Two male middle school students participated in this study. Although both students were identified through the school’s typical nomination process for Tier 2 interventions, additional data on students’ specific academic and behavioral histories were not collected. -There were limitations with respect to data collection. Data were only collected during the first 15 min of class, and the remaining 34 min were not observed. -As the purpose of the study was to explore the effects of prompting, the authors do not implement more comprehensive behavior support strategies. It is possible that greater behavior change would have resulted from implementation of additional strategies, including those used in combination with prompting in previous research (i.e., active supervision and reinforcement). -The authors did not collect social validity data. Future Implications: This study demonstrated the effectiveness of prompting with two male middle school students. Researchers should seek to systematically replicate these results with general education students with various demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, age), academic abilities, and learning histories (i.e., history of negative reinforcement for off-task behaviors). Because prompting appears to be effective with individual learners, researchers should investigate the effectiveness of prompting as a stand-alone classroom or group management strategy. Researchers should continue to explore the conditions (e.g., group size, setting, learner characteristics) and dimensions (e.g., frequency, specificity) under which prompting is most effective for individuals and groups of learners How and why is this information pertinent to your selected topic? The study investigates the effectiveness of prompting with middle school students in a general education setting. It demonstrates that prompts effectively decrease off-task behaviors. With this information, we know about treatment choices (strategies) that we can use to change the task refusal behaviors of the client subject of study.
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
Online Worksheet – Five Sources Need to be Listed Source: Science Direct Aljadeff-Abergel, E., Schenk, Y., Walmsley, C., Peterson, S., Frieder, J., & Acker, N. (2015). The effectiveness of self-management interventions for children with autism — A literature review. Researching Autism Spectrum Disorders, 18, 34–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2015.07.001 Source: Google scholar Briesch, A. M., Daniels, B., & Beneville, M. (2019). Unpacking the term “self-management”: Understanding intervention applications within the school-based literature. Journal of Behavioral Education, 28(1), 54–77. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-018-9303-1 Source: SAGE Journals Faul1, A., Stepensky, K., & Simonsen, B. (2012). The effects of prompting appropriate behavior on the off-task behavior of two middle school students. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 14(1), 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098300711410702 Source: CAU Virtual Library (Cobimet) Stahr, B., Cushing, D., Lane, K., & Fox, J. (2006). Efficacy of a function-based intervention in decreasing off-task behavior exhibited by a student with ADHD. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(4), 201-211. https://eds-b-ebscohost-com.ucamia.cobimet4.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=2&sid=8e6ba527-fd1c-4cd3-98ef-2f4b24fe6c52%40sessionmgr101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=edsgcl.152639363&db=edsgao Source: ProQuest George, K. (2016). Evaluating the effects of formal corrective feedback on off-task/on task behavior of mild intellectually disabled students: an action research study (Thesis doctoral, Capella University). https://search-proquest com.ucamia.cobimet4.org/docview/1767788724
The action research will be based on the off-task behavior of two 3rd grade students. In the attachments, you can find a template that must be used to follow each step of your intervention. The litera
Statement of Focus Answer the following questions honestly. No one will read your responses. Doing so will contribute to an effective area of focus. What area of ESE or Education do you feel YOU can change or improve? Please think of this in light of your proposed action research focus this term. We can change the task refusal behaviors of a student with special needs by reducing them and increasing the client’s compliance with non-preferred demands and activities. Why is this change particularly meaningful to YOU as an educator? That change is particularly meaningful to us as behavior analysts and future educators because client’s task refusal reduces possibilities of learning, independence, acquisition of skills, and has a negative social impact. What do other educators or professionals tell you when YOU discuss this topic with them? Other behavior analysts tell us that the task refusal is a maladaptive behavior commonly showed by students with special needs. They indicate that this behavior limits the opportunities of students to learn and become independent performing his Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and reach academic’s progress to be placed at school in the least restrictive environment. They indicate that as behavior analysts we can change those behaviors, and therefore provide the students with more opportunities to learn and achieve his academic goals. How is the desired outcome a part of YOUR educational philosophy? As behavior analysts and future educators, we advocate for the inclusion of students with special needs in society. Changing task refusal behaviors, we provide them the opportunity to have a place in school and society. Describe the situation with your student/group of students that you want to change by implicitly focusing on: (What is the problem you would like to improve) Who? What? When? Where? How? Who? We want to change a specific maladaptive behavior showed by a student with special needs. What? We want to change specifically the task refusal behaviors showed by a student with special needs. When? The change is projected to be accomplished within 6 months. Where? We expect that task refusal behaviors will decrease in all settings in which the student interacts: home, school, and community. How? We will implement antecedent and consequence strategies and interventions to reduce the task refusal behavior of the student. Also, we will teach replacement skills (e.g. on task-sitting skill, following instructions) and the student will acquire desired behaviors and reduce the task refusal behaviors.




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