See attached documents
See attached documents
3 INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY STUDY-GUIDE FOR THE FINAL**For short-answer and essay questions I can only grade you on what you write. Explain your answer with as much content as possible (leave the fluff out). I can only assume you know what you write, not that you know more but did not write it down for your answer. BUDDHISM (Write one paragraph (3-4 sentences) for each answer) What are the Four Noble Truths? In what ways do we suffer? (18-21) How does the argument of non-Self factor into the Buddhist ethics of benevolence? Why should there be absolute compassion and benevolence for the other? (81-82) MANDEVILLE. (Write one paragraph for each answer) Give one example from the poem The Grumbling Hive, or Knaves Turn’d Honest which demonstrates his moral egoism. Explain how it demonstrates it. IMMANUEL KANT (Write one paragraph for each answer) What is the Categorical Imperative? Is it ever ethically acceptable to lie? (169 &171) Explain what Kant means when he says the motto of enlightenment is: “Have courage to use your own understanding!” Why is it not simply a matter of a lack of understanding? How does this relate to politics? (54-55) JOHN STUART MILL (Write one paragraph for each answer) What is the Principle of Utility? Is it ethical to murder someone simply because it makes you happy? How would you calculate that? (156) THOMAS HOBBES (Write one paragraph for each answer) What is the Social Contract Theory? (364) What does Hobbes say the state of nature for humanity is? (367-368) JOHN LOCKE (Write one paragraph for each answer) What is the purpose for the existence of the State? What are the three liberties it preserves? (372-373) JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU (Write one paragraph for each answer) What is the difference between amour de soi (self-love) and amour propre (pride)? What role do these two terms play in Rousseau’s argument about moral progress? (147) What is the General Will and how does this explain how it’s possible for freedom and authority not to be contradictory? (179-180, 182, 184-185) KARL MARX (Write one paragraph for each answer) In The German Ideology we get an exposé of Marx’s argument that “all history is a history of class-struggle” which is represented in terms of the antagonistic relationships that characterize each epoch. What is the relationship that characterizes Capitalism? How does the means of production being owned by a minority of the population factor into the working-class being deprived of full freedom? (150-155, 159-160, 172-174) Explain two of the four types of alienation the worker experiences. Why is this experienced? How does this relate to Marx’s critique of the capitalist system? (70-80) MIKHAIL BAKUNIN (Write one paragraph for each answer) The Liberal theory of the state argues humans are selfish and so the state is justified in order to keep humans as good as possible. In what way does Bakunin argue this actually undermines that very argument? Who rules over the people? How does he relate this to theology? (139-140) **ANSWER ONE OF THE TWO: MARTIN HEIDEGGER (Write one paragraph for each answer) What does Heidegger argue the essence of technology is and how is modern technology particularly dangerous? (19-21, 33) SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR (Write one paragraph for each answer) In what way does the human condition affect ethics? Why is ethics ambiguous? SHORT ESSAY QUESTION (Write roughly 150 words) What is the value of philosophy? What is philosophy and what is the point of studying it? Present an argument from Russel or Deleuze to answer this question. Then, defend it or argue against it. What do you think? What is philosophy and does it have any value? LONG ESSAY QUESTION (Write roughly 300 words) A theme that runs across the different political philosophies we have read is the various perils of political society with differing arguments about how to solve this problem. We have seen Hobbes argue that society is built on tyranny, but that the alternative – living in the state of nature – is a worse existence; Locke has argued that while the state of nature is relatively free and peaceful, life under government is better, where the aim of government is to protect property rights. Rousseau has argued political society is a necessary evil where human beings are “everywhere in chains” even though they are “born free.” His solution is a government based on the General Will; Marx has argued that political society is alienating and based on exploitation where the only and inevitable solution is the collapse of class distinctions where real egalitarianism would emerge; and Bakunin has argued that the existence of binding-hierarchy in society is inherently corrosive and that instead human existence must be solely based on voluntary associations. Do you agree with any of these arguments? Present the argument of one of these philosophers, defend or criticize them, and argue your own unique political, social, or economic solution to whatever detriment you believe there is in political society.
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