READ ALL readings I have provided.I will post all required readings. Do not quote or refer to outside resources. Use ONLY the readings I have provided as reference or quotes.What isimportant to include are parenthetical references to page numbers when you’re citing or responding a specific point. This way, our colleagues can easily find and read an intriguing reference that they hadn’t noticed.(include page number ) For example:I was stunned to learn that the first woman to run for U.S. president was Victoria Woodhull, in 1872. She was a self-proclaimed “Free Lover” and claimed the right to love anyone for any length of time without being regulated by a father, husband, or any law (Bronski, pg 81-81).I ask that you focus your answers on one of the three topics and related reading I’ve provided. I hope this will allow you to engage more deeply with events and ideas which are important to you.Please label your answer indicating whether your thoughts respond to the ABORTION, CONTRACEPTION, or EUGENICS readings provided–and make sure you fully explain your thinking and have checked your work for accuracy, clarity, readability. Thank you! Please label each response (a, b, c, d) and provide a separate paragraph of 3-7 sentences for each part.I have chosen Contraception as the topic you will write about.
READ ALL readings I have provided. I will post all required readings. Do not quote or refer to outside resources. Use ONLY the readings I have provided as reference or quotes. What isimportant to incl
Thompson, A Brief History of Birth Control in the U.S. – page 1 of 4 A Brief History of Birth Cont rol in the U.S. By Kirsten M.J. Thompson, Ou r Bodies Ourselves, December 14, 2013 https://www.ourbodiesourselves.org/book -excerpts/health -article/a -brief -history -of-birth -control/ BH edits , additions in red ; long passages in red are quoted from https://www.fpa.org.uk/factsheets/contraception – past -present -future and use standard British spellin g as in the original. People have long tried many methods to prevent pregnancy. Prior to modern methods of birth control, they relied on withdrawal or pe riodic abstinence. These methods often failed. The follow ing paragraphs are all from fpa.org .uk , selected and organiz ed by me ; in black to be easier on the eyes: For thousands of years women have inserted fruit acids, jellies, pastes and various mixtures into their vagina in an attempt to prevent conception. Environments that are either sharply acidic or alkaline are hosti le to sperm and therefore these methods may have had some effect. Oral contraceptives date back more than 2000 years. Early preparations varied from eating willow shoots and bees to consuming the internal scrapings of male deer horns. There is little proof about the origins of IUDs, but there is evidence that ancient Greeks used some form of device. For centuries, many items such as leaves, lemons and sponges were used as vaginal barriers. Sponges have continued to be used in one form or another up to the present day with the development of spermicide – releasing sponge . Periodic abstinence has been used as a birth control method ever since it was first discovered that sexual intercourse led to pregnancy. In the mid -19th century, Von Baer identified the female ova, and in the 1930s studies by Ogino in Japan and Knaus in Austria showed when ovulation and th us fertilisation occurred. This knowledge enabled improved calculation of the fertile and infertile times of a woman’s menstrual cycle. The Ogino –Knaus theory, which became known as the Calendar Method in 1934, was promoted by the Roman Catholic faith, whi ch continues to denounce all artificial birth control methods. Since the 1600s, vaginal douches have been used after intercourse as contraceptives but are not [now] recommended as either safe or effective. Around 3000 B.C. Condoms made from such materials as fish bladders, linen sheaths, and animal intestines. Around 1500 First spermicides introduced which used condoms made from linen cloth sheaths , soaked in a chemical solution and dried before using. 1564 Gabriello Fallopius recommended a moistened linen sheath for protection against STIs. 18 40s -50s After discovery of the vulcanization process by Goodyear, condoms and diaphragms made from vulcanized rubber. 1868 Cervico –uterine stems were developed. These were small button/cap shapes attached to stems, made of a number of different material s, which extended into the cervix. 1873 The Comstock Act passed in the United States prohibiting advertisements, information, and distribution of birth control and allowing the postal service to confiscate birth control sold through the mail. Thompson, A Brief History of Birth Control in the U.S. – page 2 of 4 1882 Dr C Hasse (pseudonym was Wilhelm Mesinga) credited with inventing the diaphragm. 1883 Aletta Jacobs, a Dutch doctor, described a vulcanised rubber cap. Known as the Dutch cap, it had an integral circular watchspring and covered the upper vagina and cervix. The introduction of the diaphragm into Victorian England contributed to the emancipation of women, allowing them to control their own fertility for the first time 1885 The first commercial vaginal suppository using cocoa butter and quinine sulphate was developed by Walter Rendell, an English pharmacist. This was later replaced by hydroquinine, a more potent spermicide, and sponges soaked in quinine sulphate. early 1900s Female condoms (‘Capote Anglais’ or Feminine Sheaths) made of rubber were first available. 1906 Friedrich Merz developed the first known commercially produced spermicidal jelly, called Patentex. 1909 The first specifically designed IUD (a ring of silk -worm gut) was made by Dr R Richter. 1916 Margaret Sanger opens first birth control clinic in the United States. The next year she was deemed guilty of maintaining a public nuisance and sentenced to jail for 30 days. Once released, she re -opened her clinic and continued to persevere through more arrests and prosecutions. 1930s Numerous chemicals were investigated for potential spermicides. The work led to the setting up of standardised testing of spermicides and their effectiveness. During the 1950s, more effective chemicals such as nonoxinol -9 were developed. 1930s Crepe rubber was replaced by lat ex [in condoms] . 1930s and 1940s Improved understanding of ovulation and temperature changes led to development and use of the temperature method. 1938 In a case involvi ng Margaret Sanger, a judge lifted the federal ban on birth control, ending the Comstock era. Diaphragms, also known as womb veils, became a popular method of birth control. 1945 Syntex SA was established to produce steroids from diosgenin (a plant steroid in Mexican yam s) and search for compounds which could be administered orally. 1950 While in her 80s, Sanger underwrote the research necessary to create the first human birth control pill. She raised $150,000 for the project. 1950s Work by Gregory Pincus, Carl Djerassi, John Rock and others resulted in the development of oral contraceptives . 1956 Clinical trials of oral contraceptives began. 1957 Norethynodrel, mestranol and norethindrone (with estrogen) were approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for menstrual disorders. 1960 The first oral contraceptive, Enovid, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as contracept ion. 1960s Plastic IUDs were developed (Lippes Loop, Marguilies Spiral, Saf -T-Coil). 1960s The first hormonal preparations [for emergency contraception] used high doses of estrogen alone, taken over five days. Thompson, A Brief History of Birth Control in the U.S. – page 3 of 4 1964 Following research into cyclical changes in cervical mucus, the Billings method (also known as ovulation or cervical mucus method) was introduced. 1965 The Supreme Court (in Griswold v. Connecticut) gave married couples the right to use birth control, ruling that it was protected in the Constitution as a right to privacy. However, millions of unmarried women in 26 states were still denied birth control. 1967 The development of contraceptive hormone -filled silastic capsules which could be implanted under the skin started in America. 1968 FDA approved intrauterine devices (IUDs), bringing early versions like the Lippes Loop and Copper 7 to market. 1969 Copper IUDs were introduced. 1970 Feminists challenged the safety of oral contraceptives (the Pill) at well -publicized Congressional hearings. As a result, the formulation of the Pill was changed, and the package insert for prescription drugs came into being. 1970s Combined estrogen and progestogen (called the Yuzpe regimen [for emergency contraception] ) replaced estrogen used alone. 1972 The Supreme Court (in Baird v. Eisenstadt) legalized birth control for all citizens of this country, irrespective of marital status. 1974 The FDA suspe nded sale of the Dalkon Shield IUD due to infections and seven documented deaths among users. Although other IUD designs were not implicated, most IUDs were slowly taken off the US market due to the escalating costs of lawsuits in subsequent years. 1980s Pills with low doses of hormones were introduced, along with a new copper IUD, ParaGard (1998). (CuT380a). Growing awareness of the Yuzpe regimen for emergency contraception. 1990s Introduction of Norplant, the first contraceptive implant (1990 ),DepoProver a, an injectable method (1992), FC1/Reality, a female condom (1993) and Plan B, and a dedicated emergency contraceptive product (1999). 1990s The sympto -ther mal method combines all fertility indicators and is highly effective. Various devices are now available which monitor changes in a woman’s menstrual cycle, based on changes in temperature, urinary hormones or saliva. 1992 Polyurethane female condoms designed to line the vagina were introduced in the UK [also U.S .?] 1996 Hormonal -releasing devices (intrauterine systems) introduced. 1997 First polyurethane condom launched in the UK: stronger, less sensitive to heat and humidity, and not damaged by oil -based lubricants. 2000s Rapid expansion in method availability and improvements in safety and effectiveness, including introduction of Mir ena, a new levonorgestrel -releasing IUD (2000), Ortho Evra, a hormonal patch (2001), Nuvaring, a vaginal ring (2001), Essure, a method of transcervical female sterilization (2002), Implanon, a single -rod implant (2006), and FC2, an improved female condom ( 2009). 2002 The first implant, Norplant, is taken off the US market. Thompson, A Brief History of Birth Control in the U.S. – page 4 of 4 2009 The first combined pi ll (Qlaira) to contain estradiol valerate (a synthetic estrogen) and dienogest (a new progestogen) became available. Qlaira has a quadraphasic dosage regimen, with 26 active tablets with a sequence of reducing estrogen and increasing progestogen dose, foll owed by two placebo tablets. The monthly regimen of 21 active pills containing estrogen and progestogen, followed by a seven -day break of no pills (or seven placebo tablets) was created to promote a monthly withdrawal bleed and so mimic the menstrual cycle . Continuous use of COCs reduces the number of monthly bleeds. Various formulations are being researched which vary the number of days of use. Seasonale was approved for use in the US in 2009 and is taken continuously for three months (84 days). 2009 NuvaRing, a combined estrogen and progestogen ring became available. It is used for three weeks, followed by seven hormone -free days. (Contraceptive vaginal rings containing contraceptive hormones have been studied since the early 1970s. ) 2010s Ella, a new emergency contraceptive pill (2010) and Skyla, a new levonorgestrel -releasing IUD (2013) are introduced. Growing use of the copper IUD for emergency contraception. 2013 After protracted regulatory and legal battles, one brand of emergency contraceptive pill (Plan B One -Step) becomes available without a prescription on drug store shelves. Today More research is needed on woman -controlled methods that protect against STIs and birth control for men. Barriers to accessing reliable contraception remain for women worldwide. Further reading from https://www.fpa.org.uk/factsheets/contraception -past -present -future : Blacker CP, Voluntary Sterilisation (Oxford University Press, 1934). Dickens E, Immaculate Contraception: The extraordinary story of birth control from the first fumbling s to the present day (London: Robson, 2000). Djerassi C, From the Lab into the World: A pill for people, pets and bug s (American Chemical Society, 1994). FPA, Choose What You Use: The FPA Essential Guide to Contraception (FPA, 2010). Fryer P, The Birth Controllers (Secker and Warburg, 1965). Green S, The Curious History of Contraception (Ebury Press, 1971). Jutte R, Contraception: A History (Polity Press, 2008). Marks L, Sexual Chemistry: A history of the contraceptive pill (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001). McLaren A, A History of Contraception: From Antiquity to the Present Day (Blackwell, 1990). Nas s S and Strauss JF eds, New Frontiers in Contraceptive Research: A blueprint for action (Washington DC: National Academic Press, 2004). Robertson WH, An Illustrated History of Contraception (Parthenon, 1991). Stopes M, Contraception, Theory, History and Pr actice (John Gale and Sons, 1929).
READ ALL readings I have provided. I will post all required readings. Do not quote or refer to outside resources. Use ONLY the readings I have provided as reference or quotes. What isimportant to incl
I ask that you focus your answers on one of the three topics and related reading I’ve provided. I hope this will allow you to engage more deeply with events and ideas which are important to you. Please label your answer indicating whether your thoughts respond to the ABORTION, CONTRACEPTION, or EUGENICS readings provided–and make sure you fully explain your thinking and have checked your work for accuracy, clarity, readability. Thank you!           10 points Please label each response (a, b, c, d) and provide a separate paragraph of 3-7 sentences for each part: a. What were you already well aware of regarding U.S. history and policies with regard to your chosen topic? b. What surprised you, or is most important for people to know about, with regard to the history of your chosen topic in the United States as summarized in the readings? Explain your answer. c. What additional information or focus areas should be added to these readings on abortion? Please describe and explain why. Do you have any specific recommendations? I’d love to know about them! d. Should any of the readings in your chosen topic area be removed from this assignment? If so, please briefly explain why.
READ ALL readings I have provided. I will post all required readings. Do not quote or refer to outside resources. Use ONLY the readings I have provided as reference or quotes. What isimportant to incl
Experimental male contraception pill shown to be safe in early trial By HealthDay News , MARCH 25, 2019 / 1:31 PM https://www.upi.com/Health_New s/2019/03/25/Experimental -male -contraception -pill -shown -to-be-safe -in-early – trial/7311553534477/ A male contraceptive pill, long a goal of men — and women — everywhere, may be one step closer to reality, U.S. researchers report. They say their experimental pill appears to be safe while reducing levels of hormones key to sperm production. “Our results suggest that this pill, which combines two hormonal activities in one, will decrease sperm production while preserving libido,” said study co -seni or investigator Dr. Christina Wang. She’s professor of medicine at Los Angeles Biomed Research Institute at Harbor -UCLA Medical Center in Torrance, Calif. But no one should hold their breath while waiting for the pill to reach the market: “Safe, reversible hormonal male contraception should be available in about 10 years,” Wang said in a news release from the Endocrine Society. Her team presented the findings on Sunday at the society’s annual meeting in New Orleans. The study “shows promise for a future reversible male contraceptive,” agreed Dr. Tomer Singer, who directs reproductive endocrinology and infertility at Lenox Hill Ho spital in New York City. He wasn’t involved in the new research, and stressed that “more studies, including prospective randomized trials, are needed in order to confirm these initial findings.” The new research involved 40 healthy men who received either a placebo or the experimental birth control pill, which is for now called 11 -beta -MNTDC. As Wang’s group explained, the pill is a modified form of testosterone that delivers the combined actions of both a male hormo ne and the female hormone progesterone. The men took the placebo or drug once a day for 28 days. Among the men who took the birth control pill, average circulating testosterone levels dropped as low as that which occurs in a deficiency of the male hormone androgen. However, the men did not experience any severe side effects, such as major loss of libido, as can occur in a typical state of androgen deficiency. Any side effects that did occur were few and mild, and incl uded fatigue, acne or headache, Wang’s group reported. Five of the men who took the birth control pill reported slight declines in their sex drive, while two reported mild erectile dysfunction. However, none of this affected their sexual activity, which di d not decrease. None of the men stopped taking the drug because of side effects, and they all passed safety tests. In men who took the birth control pill, levels of two hormones required for sperm production dropped greatly compared to those who took the p lacebo. And the drug’s effects were reversible after the men stopped taking the pill. Wang stressed that the drug would take at least three 60 – to 90 -day regimens to begin to affect sperm production, so the 28 days of treatment in the study was too short t o achieve maximum sperm suppression. However, her team plans longer studies and — if they show that the drug is effective — the next phases will be larger studies. Finally, the pill would be tested in sexually active couples, Wang said. Singer agreed tha t longer trials are key to knowing if this pill will be successful. “We know that in order to produce a healthy sperm — which has a life cycle for approximately 3 months — there has to be secretion of both FSH and LH, which are two hormones secreted by t he pituitary gland,” he explained. Those two hormones “act on the testicular cells to produce sperm in one [type of cell] and secrete testosterone in the other,” Singer added. However, “the main challenge is that suppressing the hormones — testosterone, L H and FSH — by taking hormonal treatment may result in a decease in libido, erection and ejaculation,” Singer said. This early, phase 1 clinical trial shows promise, he said, but only larger, longer trials will prove if 11 -beta – MNTDC is both safe and effe ctive. Because the findings were presented at a media meeting, they should also be considered preliminary until published in a peer -reviewed journal. Copyright © 2019 HealthDay. All rights reserved.




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