Please the attached
Please the attached
Question 1 An intermediate premise is a premise that is identical to the conclusion of the argument.  True  False Question 2 An intermediate premise is a premise that is supported by another premise.  True  False 1 points    Question 3 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①          ②           ④   └───────┘                ↓               ③ ① If Huey sees a ghost tonight at the old hotel and he’s there all by himself, he’ll scream and run for the hills. ② Huey is at the old hotel by himself tonight. So, ③ he’ll scream and run for the hills. For ④ he sees a ghost.  ① If Marcy is sat next to Mindy at the bridal shower, they’ll get into an argument about Marcus. ② If they get into an argument about Marcus, the bride will run to her bedroom and cry. ③ Marcy is sat next to Mindy at the bridal shower. Hence, ④ the bride runs to her bedroom and cries. ① It will storm this evening. ② Whenever we three meet in the woods, it storms. ③ We’ll meet in the woods this evening. So, ④ we’re certain to get drenched in the downpour.  ① I need to have a computer with a webcam to take classes remotely this semester. ② The Apple Mac Pro has a webcam. ③ The Google Pixelbook has one too. So ④ I should either buy an Apple Mac Pro, or a Google Pixelbook. ① We should buy tickets to go to the opera if it would make Granddad happy. ② It would make Granddad happy to go to the opera. So ③ we should buy tickets to go to the opera. ④ The Marriage of Figaro is playing downtown next summer. 1 points    Question 4 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①        ②         ③             ④ └──────┘     ↘︎            ↙︎             ⑤ ① If there are pawprints in the butter, we have a rat problem. ② If we have a rat problem, we should look for another apartment. ③ There are pawprints in the butter. ④ We should look for another apartment. Also, ⑤ don’t eat that butter. ① Grandma gets grumpy whenever she’s around loud noises. And ② the baby just started crying. ③ Grandma also gets grumpy when she’s not feeling well. And ④ she’s still not over the flu from last weekend. So ⑤ Grandma is probably grumpy.  ① If he doesn’t answer my texts, he probably doesn’t like me. ② He doesn’t answer my texts. So ③ he probably doesn’t like me. ④ If he doesn’t like me, I should stop texting him. So all in all, ⑤ I should stop texting him.  ① The city is planning to repair the railway tracks on this line every weekend until Christmas. ② Whenever the railway tracks are being repaired, there are substantial delays. ③ When there are substantial delays on the railway, it takes us over two hours to get into the city. ④ We’ll take the train into the city next weekend. So ⑤ it will take us over two hours.  ① If Col. Mustard and Mr. Green are innocent, Mrs. Peacock is the murderer. ② Col. Mustard has a pretty good alibi. ③ Mr. Green had no motive. And remember, ④ Mrs. Peacock’s fingerprints were found on the murder weapon. ⑤ Mrs. Peacock is the murderer.   Question 5 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①         ③ └──┘        ↓       ⑤       ④      └──┘             ↓            ②  ① If God were all-powerful, then either he could create a rock that he cannot move, or he couldn’t create a rock that he cannot move. So it turns out that ② God is not all-powerful. For ③ if he can create a rock that he cannot move, there is something that he cannot do (namely, move the rock!). So ④ if God is all-powerful, he cannot create a rock he cannot move. But ⑤ if he cannot create a rock he cannot move, there is something that he cannot do (namely, create the rock!) ① If all things that currently exist might not have existed, then it is possible that at some point nothing will exist. But ② it is impossible that at some point nothing will exist. For ③ if there is a time where nothing exists, it would follow that nothing can exist now. Yet ④ I certainly exist now. So, ⑤ there must be something existing now that could not have not existed, namely God.   ① If God is all-knowing, then God already knows whether or not I will have a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. ② If God already knows whether or not I will have a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow, then it is futile for me to struggle to resist eating a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. ③ My fitness trainer wants me to struggle to resist eating a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. So ④ it is futile to do what my fitness trainer wants me to do. After all, ⑤ God is all-knowing. ① If all actions in the universe are predetermined, then human beings don’t have freedom to act as they wish. But then, ultimately, it follows that ② we shouldn’t hold people responsible for their actions. After all, ③ science tells us that all actions in the universe are predetermined. And of course, ④ we should only hold people responsible for their actions if they have freedom to act as they wish. And ⑤ we now know that human beings don’t have freedom to act as they wish. ① Death is either an annihilation in which we have no consciousness at all, or else it is a migration of the soul to another place. ② Yet in either case, it is not something to fear. ③ We should not fear annihilation. ④ It would be like a sound and dreamless sleep. And ⑤ nor should we fear the migration of the soul to another place.  Question 6 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①               ④  ↓                  ↓ ②               ③    ↘︎       ↙︎         ⑤ ① The law of gravity can be broken. ② Only those who believe in miracles believe that the law of gravity may be broken. ③ If I drop this ball and it floats into the sky, the law of gravity would be broken. ④ I drop this ball and it floats into the sky. So, ⑤ I must believe in miracles. ① It’s morally acceptable for humans to eat anything that tastes good to us. So ② if meat tastes good to us, it’s morally acceptable for us to eat it. ③ Meat tastes good to us. That’s because ④ it contains complex proteins. So, ⑤ it’s morally acceptable for humans to eat meat.  ① Astronomers study great cosmic events that cannot be repeated. So ② astronomy is a science that does not depend upon repeatable experiments. And ③ the science of botany does not rely upon repeatable experiments either. ④ Botanists work to discover, identify, and classify the various plant species on Earth. So ⑤ there are at least some sciences don’t depend upon experimentation.  ① The plays that William Shakespeare wrote, such as Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, and King Lear, are widely thought to be masterpieces. ② That is the reason that many students must read his plays as part of their high school curriculum. ③ The novels of Virginia Woolf, such as The Waves, Mrs. Galloway, and A Room of One’s Own, are widely thought to be masterpieces. ④ That is the reason that many students must read her novels as part of their high school curriculum. ⑤ One function of high school education is to introduce students to cultural masterpieces. ① The criminals who burgled the mansion last night either came in through the upstairs window, or else the basement. ② There were unusual footprints near the basement, and the upstairs window was left open. ③ The criminals must have left the same way that they entered. ④ There is only one set of footprints leading up to the basement. So, ⑤ the criminals must have entered through the upstairs window. Question 7 Select the argument below that has the following map: ④          ⑤  └───┘           ↓          ①          ③                └───┘                   ↓                  ② ① If Pierre lived in Paris for twenty years, he must speak French fluently. ② No one who can speak French fluently would take the course Elementary French I unless he or she wanted to get an easy “A”. And ③ Pierre did live in Paris for twenty years. Plus, ④ he’s taking Elementary French I. So, ⑤ he must be doing it to get an easy “A”. ① Pigs make great pets. ② They learn to do tricks as well as any dog can. ③ They can be house trained, too. And ④ they are affectionate, since they like to cuddle. And ⑤ if you get bored with them or they become unruly, you can eat them. ① I’m convinced that Mary deliberately hurt Jane. So, ② she ought to be punished. ③ Anyone who deliberately hurts someone should be punished. And ④ I saw Mary’s cruel expression when Jane fell down the stairs. ⑤ The only way she’d have that cruel expression is if she was intending to do harm.  ① The check is void unless it is cashed within 30 days. So ② you cannot cash this check. ③ For the date on the check is September 2, and it is now October 8. ④ The date on check is now void. ⑤ You cannot cash a check which is void.  ① Today is either Tuesday or Wednesday. However, ② it can’t be Wednesday. ③ The doctor’s office was open this morning and that office is always closed on Wednesday. Therefore, ④ today must be Tuesday. So, ⑤ tomorrow is Wednesday. Question 8 Consider the following argument:  ① Believing that God exists because one hopes He does is rationally justified, according to William James. ② Deciding to believe something is true on the basis of feeling is justified when there is no rational evidence against it. ③ There is no rational evidence against the existence of God.  ④ Deciding to believe in God based on the hope that He exists is to believe on the basis of feeling.  What is the correct map for this argument?    ④        ②         ③                                   ↘     ↓     ↙             ①                 ④    ↓   ②         ③  └──┘        ↓            ①   ④         ②            ③   └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ① ④         ②            ③                └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ① Question 9 Consider the following argument: ① Acting ethically requires that one not be a “serious” person, on Simone de Beauvoir’s view. ② She defines a “serious” person as someone who denies that they can act freely. ③ A person who does not think they can live freely does not feel responsible for their actions. So ④ Beauvoir’s “serious” people don’t feel responsible for what they do. And ⑤ feeling responsible for one’s actions is required if one is to act ethically.   What is the correct map for this arguent? ②                ③ └────┘          ↓         ④                ⑤               ↘     ↙                         ① ②           ③ └───┘        ↓       ④                ⑤       └────┘                  ↓                 ① ②             ③     ↘     ↙          ④                ⑤                ↘     ↙                    ① ②             ③     ↘     ↙          ④                ⑤          └────┘                     ↓                    ①                  ②           ③                   └───┘                            ↓       ④                ⑤       └────┘                  ↓                 ① ④         ②            ③   └───────────┘              ↓             ① 1 points    Question 10 Consider the following argument:  ① Observers will be able to spot Halley’s Comet in the sky in 2061. ② It hurtles past Earth at about 2000mph every 75 or 76 years. And ③ it was last spotted in 1986. ④ Astronomers believe that the comet was pulled into its stable trajectory by the gravity of the giant outer planets. What is the correct map for this argument?    ④    ↓   ②         ③  └──┘        ↓            ①   ④         ②            ③                └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ① ④         ②            ③   └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ①   ④        ②         ③                                   ↘     ↓     ↙             ①               ④         ②            ③   └───────────┘              ↓             ① Question 11 Consider the following argument: ① Marx objects to social practices, like religion, that keeps people distracted from their material conditions. ② Marvel movies keep millions of people distracted for hours at a time. ③ Between ticket sales, tie-in comics and merchandise, digital and DVD copies, the studio has made billions of dollars in profits. ④ As a result, they have been able to make more movies and distract more people. So ⑤ Marx would object to Marvel movies. Which is the correct map for this argument? ③                ④    ↘       ↙           ②       ①            └──┘                  ↓                 ⑤ ③  ↓ ④  ↓ ②       ① └──┘       ↓      ⑤ ④  ↓ ③  ↓ ②       ① └──┘       ↓      ⑤ ③                ④    ↘       ↙           ②              ①              ↘       ↙                    ⑤ ①           ②    ③    ④               └──────┘         ↘       ↙              ⑤   Question 12 Consider the following argument:  ① In “Euthyphro,” it’s claimed that what is holy is loved by the gods either because it’s holy, or because the gods love it. ② It can’t be the case that it’s holy because the gods love it. ③ For then, what is holy would be arbitrary. So, ④ what is holy is what is loved by the gods because its holy.  What is the correct map for this argument? ①           ②            ③                 └──────┘       ↘       ↙            ④                                    ③                                                                                    ↓ ①             ② └───────┘          ↓          ④                  ②                                                                                 ↓ ①             ③ └───────┘          ↓          ④ ①  ↓ ②             ③ └───────┘             ↓           ④ ①          ②          ③                ↘     ↓     ↙                                                ④               Question 13 Consider the following argument: ① Religious cults demand that followers regard the leader’s life as more valuable than their own. In addition, ② they demand that followers regard the leader’s judgment as more reliable than their own. ③ A person with high self-esteem would not find the first demand acceptable. And ④ a person with a high degree of self-confidence would not find the second demand acceptable. So ⑤ if Mary is in this religious cult she has low self-esteem. And ⑥ if she is in this religious cult she is not self-confident. So ⑦ if Mary’s in this religious cult, she’s got low self-esteem and self-confidence. In a map of the argument, what is the role of ⑤? It is a joint premise that, togeher with ①, supports ③ It is an independent premise that supports ⑦ It is a joint premise that, together with ⑥, supports ⑦ It is an independent premise that supports ③ It is an independent premise that supports ⑥ Question 14 Consider the following argument: ① Religious cults demand that followers regard the leader’s life as more valuable than their own. In addition, ② they demand that followers regard the leader’s judgment as more reliable than their own. ③ A person with high self-esteem would not find the first demand acceptable. And ④ a person with a high degree of self-confidence would not find the second demand acceptable. So ⑤ if Mary is in this religious cult she has low self-esteem. And ⑥ if she is in this religious cult she is not self-confident. So ⑦ if Mary’s in this religious cult, she’s got low self-esteem and self-confidence. In a map of this argument, what is the role of ③? It is a joint premise that together with ①, ②, and ④ supports ⑤ It is a joint premise that, together with ②, supports ④ It is a joint premise that, together with ①, ②, and ④, supports ⑦ It is a joint premise that, together with ①, supports ⑤ It is a joint premise that, together with ①, ②, ④, ⑤, and ⑥ supports ⑦  Question 15 Consider the following argument: ① We should not give in to the demands of terrorists. ② Giving in to their demands would convince them that their tactics work. ③ If terrorists are convinced that their tactics work, they will be encouraged to terrorize again in the future. ④ We do not want to encourage terrorists to terrorize.  In a map of the argument, what is the role of ③? It is a joint premise that, together with ① and ④, supports ② It is a joint premise that, together with ② and ④, supports ① It is a joint premise that, together with ① and ②, supports ④ It is an independent premise that supports ④ It is an independent premise that supports ②
Please the attached
Question 1 An intermediate premise is a premise that is identical to the conclusion of the argument.  True  False Question 2 An intermediate premise is a premise that is supported by another premise.  True  False 1 points    Question 3 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①          ②           ④   └───────┘                ↓               ③ ① If Huey sees a ghost tonight at the old hotel and he’s there all by himself, he’ll scream and run for the hills. ② Huey is at the old hotel by himself tonight. So, ③ he’ll scream and run for the hills. For ④ he sees a ghost.  ① If Marcy is sat next to Mindy at the bridal shower, they’ll get into an argument about Marcus. ② If they get into an argument about Marcus, the bride will run to her bedroom and cry. ③ Marcy is sat next to Mindy at the bridal shower. Hence, ④ the bride runs to her bedroom and cries. ① It will storm this evening. ② Whenever we three meet in the woods, it storms. ③ We’ll meet in the woods this evening. So, ④ we’re certain to get drenched in the downpour.  ① I need to have a computer with a webcam to take classes remotely this semester. ② The Apple Mac Pro has a webcam. ③ The Google Pixelbook has one too. So ④ I should either buy an Apple Mac Pro, or a Google Pixelbook. ① We should buy tickets to go to the opera if it would make Granddad happy. ② It would make Granddad happy to go to the opera. So ③ we should buy tickets to go to the opera. ④ The Marriage of Figaro is playing downtown next summer. 1 points    Question 4 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①        ②         ③             ④ └──────┘     ↘︎            ↙︎             ⑤ ① If there are pawprints in the butter, we have a rat problem. ② If we have a rat problem, we should look for another apartment. ③ There are pawprints in the butter. ④ We should look for another apartment. Also, ⑤ don’t eat that butter. ① Grandma gets grumpy whenever she’s around loud noises. And ② the baby just started crying. ③ Grandma also gets grumpy when she’s not feeling well. And ④ she’s still not over the flu from last weekend. So ⑤ Grandma is probably grumpy.  ① If he doesn’t answer my texts, he probably doesn’t like me. ② He doesn’t answer my texts. So ③ he probably doesn’t like me. ④ If he doesn’t like me, I should stop texting him. So all in all, ⑤ I should stop texting him.  ① The city is planning to repair the railway tracks on this line every weekend until Christmas. ② Whenever the railway tracks are being repaired, there are substantial delays. ③ When there are substantial delays on the railway, it takes us over two hours to get into the city. ④ We’ll take the train into the city next weekend. So ⑤ it will take us over two hours.  ① If Col. Mustard and Mr. Green are innocent, Mrs. Peacock is the murderer. ② Col. Mustard has a pretty good alibi. ③ Mr. Green had no motive. And remember, ④ Mrs. Peacock’s fingerprints were found on the murder weapon. ⑤ Mrs. Peacock is the murderer.   Question 5 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①         ③ └──┘        ↓       ⑤       ④      └──┘             ↓            ②  ① If God were all-powerful, then either he could create a rock that he cannot move, or he couldn’t create a rock that he cannot move. So it turns out that ② God is not all-powerful. For ③ if he can create a rock that he cannot move, there is something that he cannot do (namely, move the rock!). So ④ if God is all-powerful, he cannot create a rock he cannot move. But ⑤ if he cannot create a rock he cannot move, there is something that he cannot do (namely, create the rock!) ① If all things that currently exist might not have existed, then it is possible that at some point nothing will exist. But ② it is impossible that at some point nothing will exist. For ③ if there is a time where nothing exists, it would follow that nothing can exist now. Yet ④ I certainly exist now. So, ⑤ there must be something existing now that could not have not existed, namely God.   ① If God is all-knowing, then God already knows whether or not I will have a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. ② If God already knows whether or not I will have a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow, then it is futile for me to struggle to resist eating a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. ③ My fitness trainer wants me to struggle to resist eating a large chocolate cake for my dinner tomorrow. So ④ it is futile to do what my fitness trainer wants me to do. After all, ⑤ God is all-knowing. ① If all actions in the universe are predetermined, then human beings don’t have freedom to act as they wish. But then, ultimately, it follows that ② we shouldn’t hold people responsible for their actions. After all, ③ science tells us that all actions in the universe are predetermined. And of course, ④ we should only hold people responsible for their actions if they have freedom to act as they wish. And ⑤ we now know that human beings don’t have freedom to act as they wish. ① Death is either an annihilation in which we have no consciousness at all, or else it is a migration of the soul to another place. ② Yet in either case, it is not something to fear. ③ We should not fear annihilation. ④ It would be like a sound and dreamless sleep. And ⑤ nor should we fear the migration of the soul to another place.  Question 6 Select the argument below that has the following map: ①               ④  ↓                  ↓ ②               ③    ↘︎       ↙︎         ⑤ ① The law of gravity can be broken. ② Only those who believe in miracles believe that the law of gravity may be broken. ③ If I drop this ball and it floats into the sky, the law of gravity would be broken. ④ I drop this ball and it floats into the sky. So, ⑤ I must believe in miracles. ① It’s morally acceptable for humans to eat anything that tastes good to us. So ② if meat tastes good to us, it’s morally acceptable for us to eat it. ③ Meat tastes good to us. That’s because ④ it contains complex proteins. So, ⑤ it’s morally acceptable for humans to eat meat.  ① Astronomers study great cosmic events that cannot be repeated. So ② astronomy is a science that does not depend upon repeatable experiments. And ③ the science of botany does not rely upon repeatable experiments either. ④ Botanists work to discover, identify, and classify the various plant species on Earth. So ⑤ there are at least some sciences don’t depend upon experimentation.  ① The plays that William Shakespeare wrote, such as Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, and King Lear, are widely thought to be masterpieces. ② That is the reason that many students must read his plays as part of their high school curriculum. ③ The novels of Virginia Woolf, such as The Waves, Mrs. Galloway, and A Room of One’s Own, are widely thought to be masterpieces. ④ That is the reason that many students must read her novels as part of their high school curriculum. ⑤ One function of high school education is to introduce students to cultural masterpieces. ① The criminals who burgled the mansion last night either came in through the upstairs window, or else the basement. ② There were unusual footprints near the basement, and the upstairs window was left open. ③ The criminals must have left the same way that they entered. ④ There is only one set of footprints leading up to the basement. So, ⑤ the criminals must have entered through the upstairs window. Question 7 Select the argument below that has the following map: ④          ⑤  └───┘           ↓          ①          ③                └───┘                   ↓                  ② ① If Pierre lived in Paris for twenty years, he must speak French fluently. ② No one who can speak French fluently would take the course Elementary French I unless he or she wanted to get an easy “A”. And ③ Pierre did live in Paris for twenty years. Plus, ④ he’s taking Elementary French I. So, ⑤ he must be doing it to get an easy “A”. ① Pigs make great pets. ② They learn to do tricks as well as any dog can. ③ They can be house trained, too. And ④ they are affectionate, since they like to cuddle. And ⑤ if you get bored with them or they become unruly, you can eat them. ① I’m convinced that Mary deliberately hurt Jane. So, ② she ought to be punished. ③ Anyone who deliberately hurts someone should be punished. And ④ I saw Mary’s cruel expression when Jane fell down the stairs. ⑤ The only way she’d have that cruel expression is if she was intending to do harm.  ① The check is void unless it is cashed within 30 days. So ② you cannot cash this check. ③ For the date on the check is September 2, and it is now October 8. ④ The date on check is now void. ⑤ You cannot cash a check which is void.  ① Today is either Tuesday or Wednesday. However, ② it can’t be Wednesday. ③ The doctor’s office was open this morning and that office is always closed on Wednesday. Therefore, ④ today must be Tuesday. So, ⑤ tomorrow is Wednesday. Question 8 Consider the following argument:  ① Believing that God exists because one hopes He does is rationally justified, according to William James. ② Deciding to believe something is true on the basis of feeling is justified when there is no rational evidence against it. ③ There is no rational evidence against the existence of God.  ④ Deciding to believe in God based on the hope that He exists is to believe on the basis of feeling.  What is the correct map for this argument?    ④        ②         ③                                   ↘     ↓     ↙             ①                 ④    ↓   ②         ③  └──┘        ↓            ①   ④         ②            ③   └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ① ④         ②            ③                └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ① Question 9 Consider the following argument: ① Acting ethically requires that one not be a “serious” person, on Simone de Beauvoir’s view. ② She defines a “serious” person as someone who denies that they can act freely. ③ A person who does not think they can live freely does not feel responsible for their actions. So ④ Beauvoir’s “serious” people don’t feel responsible for what they do. And ⑤ feeling responsible for one’s actions is required if one is to act ethically.   What is the correct map for this arguent? ②                ③ └────┘          ↓         ④                ⑤               ↘     ↙                         ① ②           ③ └───┘        ↓       ④                ⑤       └────┘                  ↓                 ① ②             ③     ↘     ↙          ④                ⑤                ↘     ↙                    ① ②             ③     ↘     ↙          ④                ⑤          └────┘                     ↓                    ①                  ②           ③                   └───┘                            ↓       ④                ⑤       └────┘                  ↓                 ① ④         ②            ③   └───────────┘              ↓             ① 1 points    Question 10 Consider the following argument:  ① Observers will be able to spot Halley’s Comet in the sky in 2061. ② It hurtles past Earth at about 2000mph every 75 or 76 years. And ③ it was last spotted in 1986. ④ Astronomers believe that the comet was pulled into its stable trajectory by the gravity of the giant outer planets. What is the correct map for this argument?    ④    ↓   ②         ③  └──┘        ↓            ①   ④         ②            ③                └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ① ④         ②            ③   └─────┘           ↘     ↙               ①   ④        ②         ③                                   ↘     ↓     ↙             ①               ④         ②            ③   └───────────┘              ↓             ① Question 11 Consider the following argument: ① Marx objects to social practices, like religion, that keeps people distracted from their material conditions. ② Marvel movies keep millions of people distracted for hours at a time. ③ Between ticket sales, tie-in comics and merchandise, digital and DVD copies, the studio has made billions of dollars in profits. ④ As a result, they have been able to make more movies and distract more people. So ⑤ Marx would object to Marvel movies. Which is the correct map for this argument? ③                ④    ↘       ↙           ②       ①            └──┘                  ↓                 ⑤ ③  ↓ ④  ↓ ②       ① └──┘       ↓      ⑤ ④  ↓ ③  ↓ ②       ① └──┘       ↓      ⑤ ③                ④    ↘       ↙           ②              ①              ↘       ↙                    ⑤ ①           ②    ③    ④               └──────┘         ↘       ↙              ⑤   Question 12 Consider the following argument:  ① In “Euthyphro,” it’s claimed that what is holy is loved by the gods either because it’s holy, or because the gods love it. ② It can’t be the case that it’s holy because the gods love it. ③ For then, what is holy would be arbitrary. So, ④ what is holy is what is loved by the gods because its holy.  What is the correct map for this argument? ①           ②            ③                 └──────┘       ↘       ↙            ④                                    ③                                                                                    ↓ ①             ② └───────┘          ↓          ④                  ②                                                                                 ↓ ①             ③ └───────┘          ↓          ④ ①  ↓ ②             ③ └───────┘             ↓           ④ ①          ②          ③                ↘     ↓     ↙                                                ④               Question 13 Consider the following argument: ① Religious cults demand that followers regard the leader’s life as more valuable than their own. In addition, ② they demand that followers regard the leader’s judgment as more reliable than their own. ③ A person with high self-esteem would not find the first demand acceptable. And ④ a person with a high degree of self-confidence would not find the second demand acceptable. So ⑤ if Mary is in this religious cult she has low self-esteem. And ⑥ if she is in this religious cult she is not self-confident. So ⑦ if Mary’s in this religious cult, she’s got low self-esteem and self-confidence. In a map of the argument, what is the role of ⑤? It is a joint premise that, togeher with ①, supports ③ It is an independent premise that supports ⑦ It is a joint premise that, together with ⑥, supports ⑦ It is an independent premise that supports ③ It is an independent premise that supports ⑥ Question 14 Consider the following argument: ① Religious cults demand that followers regard the leader’s life as more valuable than their own. In addition, ② they demand that followers regard the leader’s judgment as more reliable than their own. ③ A person with high self-esteem would not find the first demand acceptable. And ④ a person with a high degree of self-confidence would not find the second demand acceptable. So ⑤ if Mary is in this religious cult she has low self-esteem. And ⑥ if she is in this religious cult she is not self-confident. So ⑦ if Mary’s in this religious cult, she’s got low self-esteem and self-confidence. In a map of this argument, what is the role of ③? It is a joint premise that together with ①, ②, and ④ supports ⑤ It is a joint premise that, together with ②, supports ④ It is a joint premise that, together with ①, ②, and ④, supports ⑦ It is a joint premise that, together with ①, supports ⑤ It is a joint premise that, together with ①, ②, ④, ⑤, and ⑥ supports ⑦  Question 15 Consider the following argument: ① We should not give in to the demands of terrorists. ② Giving in to their demands would convince them that their tactics work. ③ If terrorists are convinced that their tactics work, they will be encouraged to terrorize again in the future. ④ We do not want to encourage terrorists to terrorize.  In a map of the argument, what is the role of ③? It is a joint premise that, together with ① and ④, supports ② It is a joint premise that, together with ② and ④, supports ① It is a joint premise that, together with ① and ②, supports ④ It is an independent premise that supports ④ It is an independent premise that supports ②




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