Paper #1 (due SUNDAY, February 10th at 11:59pm) via TurnItIn on Canvas: In 1000-1500 words, please answer the following prompt in a multi-paragraph essay:Socrates and the Pursuit of Wisdom Prompt: Philosophy is a pursuit of wisdom, exemplified in the figure of Socrates. In a paper united by a thesis and organizational statements that appear early (i.e. in the first paragraph), explain what Socrates meant by wisdom. Briefly describe Socrates’ method for pursuing wisdom and, summarizing some of the main points you have gathered from the readings, explain how Socrates’ pursuit relates to a meaningful life. Excellent papers will have grammatical and stylistic quality, factual accuracy, a clear thesis claim and evidence for one’s claim, and a works cited (if any outside sources are used). Each paper counts for 10% of the final grade.Please look at the document “Essay Writing for This Course”, posted right after this assignment, for all the details and specifications.
Paper #1 (due SUNDAY, February 10th at 11:59pm) via TurnItIn on Canvas: In 1000-1500 words, please answer the following prompt in a multi-paragraph essay:Socrates and the Pursuit of Wisdom Prompt: Phi
Department of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Rev. 11 -18 1 Essay Writing for this Course Classes in the Humanities all plan, in some way, to help you develop your writing skills. Many careers you might pursue are h eavily dependent upon your ability to argue your point of view. We all know everyone has a point of view and has the right to express that view in a socially recognizable manner, and many i mportant issues on which we have an opinion require far more than 140 characters to be express ed effectively. That is why we still study the essay form of writing in Hu manities courses. The e ssay is a form of writing that reaches back to 1580, when French philosopher Michele de Montaigne first published his Essays on topics such as “ Of the Custom of Wearing Clothes,” “Of Cannibals,” a nd “ Of the Inconvenience of Grea tness.” Montaigne’s aim was to express himsel f through his writing to people he would never meet . And it worked! His views are still expressing themselves over 435 years later! When you can express yourself in a way that any person who might pick up your paper will easily understand you, writing can make you influential among colleagues and fellow members of your community. We all ‘know how to write,’ but there is a mile of difference between being able to write a 5 -sentence profile description of ourselves and being able to write a 5 -page paper that tells others whom we don’t know what we think on a particular topic. =n other words, writing is a skill with many levels, just like math. Immediately, we may think that higher le vel writing is a matter of knowing more vocabulary words, as in the differen ce between (2 + 2 = 4) and (9u – 4x = 14 u + 6 x). Higher level writing is more complex, but it is not more advanced simply because of its complexity. Amazing sentences may be simple, such as : “I think that I shall never see a poem lovely as a tree. ” Likewise, t hink of how famous (2 + 2 = 4) is, as far as equations go! Learning how to write essays at a higher level is not very difficult once you know the components of a basic 3-5-page essay. There are 10, which we can briefly describe right here, then it ’s just a matter of practice! As you see below, each one of these components counts for an even 10% of the final essay grade, so each one is important. They are color -coded to m atch the grading rubric below. Department of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Rev. 11 -18 2 1) Thesis/Purpose : In the first paragraph of every academic essay you write, you need a thesis , which states the whole point of the essay. A thesis must be something another reasonable person could disagree with . It is a point of view on an issue. The thesis is not usually the first sentence because you need to give the reader a few sentences to get their bearing before you state your point. It is like meeting a stranger for the first time: if you do not explain why you are approaching someone before laying into your point, they might be confused. Alternatively, if you approached a stranger and took forever to get to the poi nt, you also would seem fishy or bothersome . The best time to give the thesis is near the end of the introductory paragraph. The clearest, best theses for short essays often take the form: “In this paper, I will argue that…because…” . Notice that a good Thesis states not just what you want to argue, but why (…because…). Skipping this statement virtually guarantees you will not receive an A, so just don’t skip it. =t’s in your power. 2) Organizational Statement : This is the least known about component of a great essay . Ninety -five percent of essays miss this sentence, but all ninety -five would get significantly better marks overall if they had not missed it. The organization statement tells your reader (to whom you have just appropriately introduced yourself) the steps you will take in proving your thesis statement. After your thesis, you will need to help the reader look ahead. For instance, if you were arguing that the American Revolution did not significantly affect the character of the French Revolution, even thoug h the latter happened soon after the American Revolution, you would say something like this : “ First , I will look at the consequences of the American Revolution in Europe, and then the consequences in France more specifically, and finally , I will show that these consequences in France were not the primary reasons for the revolution there, even though they were present in the political atmosphere at the time.” When you include an organizational statement, you will be expected to follow that path in the rest of your paper, so you may have to revise it after you are all finished. Thus, this may be the last sentence of the paper you write chronologically. Keep in mind, the best papers are often written ‘out of order.’ Again, skipping this statement virtually gu arantees you will not receive an A on your essay, so just don’ t skip it. 3) Reasoning : Reasoning is the way your thought pushes the essay along — not your Tone , that is below — but your ‘train of thought’ . When the reader encounters the author’s Reasoning , it feels like the author is trying to convince you of something (namely, the thesis). Reasoning shows how you think through a problem, step -by -step, and it is what the Organizational statement spells out in very broad strokes. Reasoning can also be under stood as the order in which the author present s evidence from different sources to ‘ prove their case’. Reasoning can be very formulaic, like in ‘compare/contrast’ –type paper s or a ‘pro/con /decide ’ –type paper. O r, it might be Department of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Rev. 11 -18 3 much more complex. Good reaso ning just ‘makes sense’ to a reader , even if they disagree with the position being argued. T his is the gold standard. 4) Evidence : Evidence and Reasoning are related because arguments and quotes from other sources need to be integrated into your own writing as voices to support or (in the best essays) challenge your thesis. But quotes from other sources are something that you, the author , choose to put forward as evidence. No argument or quote from another text proves your point all by itself. So, you want to 1) choose your quotes carefully, checking the assignment to see how frequent quotes should be and the sources you need to use. =t’s often a good idea to type out the quotes you know you want to use first and make writing the process of linking the m up. And 2) you want to make sure you both introduce you quote before, and give an explanation of what you think it means after you quote it. For instance, p erhaps you are writing about an essay arguing against censorship in contemporary movies and you write: “Censorship in this instance is clearly wrong. “Know t hyself” (Plato 288) .” This will be ineffective because the reader does not know whose voice that was (Plato, like many authors, writes in the voices of different characters) . N or will the reader be able to understa nd what you mean by including the quote as part of your argument . Instead, th e better way to incorporate this authoritative voice is to say something like this : “ Censorship is clearly wrong. Socrates, who was Plato’s teacher, would have disagreed with the idea that today’s movies should be censored. As Plato recounts in his Apology , Socrates thought that the divine mission of his life could be summed up by the phrase “Know t hyself,” and thus no one else should rightly decide for others wh at experiences they should be allowed to encounter in lif e.” Note : If your professor has assigned certain material and then given you an essay assignment on the topic covered by that materia l, you should always strive to include its arguments and views as Evidence . Some students try to make it through the semester by citing internet sources exclusively. Your professors and TAs do not look kindly on this because internet sources (even from legitima te news outlets, for instance) are not typically vetted and held to the same standards as the books and essays assigned by your professor. The exception are publications in academic journals, though these varying widely in terms of their quality and editorial process. The safest option for you is always to cite the assigned materials consistently; this is the material your professor has in mind when they formulate essay assignments. 5) Organization : A third component of your argument is how effectively it is laid out. This is similar to Reasoning but it looks at the paper as a whole and considers whether the author is fully fo cused and conscious in his/her/their train of thought . Can the reader tell that the author knows why he/she/they are writing this paper? Even a broken clock is right twice a day, as they say, but it’s far better if the author demonstrates that she knows where she is at every moment throughout the paper. Organization, when fully -developed Department of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Rev. 11 -18 4 and consciously employed in an essay can make all the difference. =t is what some call the ‘rhetoric’ of a paper, but in the reader’s experience, good organization is received as harmony: it makes an argument ring like a grandfather chime. Here, you want to focus on transitions especially. If you have just finished explaining the consequences of the American Revolution and want to turn to France specifically (steps 1 and 2 of the Organization al Statement above) , you should not just change subject in the next paragraph; segues are important to keep your reader following you. At the top of the new paragraph , you might consider writing something like this : “Although the British were clearly unamused by the loss of the Americas, and the Germans and Italians seemed simply amused by it, the French had serious doubts about the ideals the signers of the Declaration see med to be espousing.” Sentences that help the reader remember what they just read and how it leads to the next step of the Organizational Statement help your Reasoning shine through. 6) Implications/Consequences : This is your conclusion paragraph, which everyone knows you need to inclu de in every paper, just like a Thesis S tatement . The conclusion is often approached as the third step in a three -step process: 1) say what you’re going to say, 2) say what you want to say, and 3) say what yo u said. =f this is all a conclusion is, though, why would we need it? Third time’s a charm? Your message will finally stick? No, a good conclusion will re -state the thesis, of course, but it will also attempt to give a way forward into other questions or i ssues that were not on the horizon until you wrote the present paper. Implications and consequences are almost never given to you in a prompt or assignment; you have to make them up on the basis of your experience arguing the the sis you chose. This is how writing helps our thinking develop, and how others get good ideas on what to write on next. This is how a good essay is able to become a conversation. When you re -state your thesis, you should take into account all the evidence you presented in the paper, which the reader had not yet seen when you first proposed your thesis. Help the reader tie it all together to prove your point. After that, you should ‘think out loud’ about new questions you have and where others might continue helping you think abou t you r topic (that is, without actually using the phrase ‘thinking out loud’ in your paper). 7) Academic Tone : Tone is something you hear in pieces of writing, but it’s hard to identify in any one specific part of a piece of writing. Sometimes when we are anxious about writing, or about sounding intelligent, we overshoot the ‘tone’ mark and end up sounding like we are holding a pipe in one hand, and a Shakespeare skull in the other. But this attitude, like all our habits in writing, is a learned affect, absorbed from the textbooks, texts, or other sources which we have been assigned. It is a kind of mirroring technique that we learn to slowl y and grow into. Pay attention to comments from your readers on this one because it is something that must be mediated and modulated progressively over time, like learning to sing death metal. Good Tone is difficult. Some of the most common pitfalls of ton e are slipping in to addressing the reader as “you” and addressing yourself, the author, as “me”. Writing can make deep connections with others, but you are probably not friends with your readers , and the point you are making , in any case, is not personal. Department of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Rev. 11 -18 5 Do remember, h owever, that using “=” when saying things like “= think, therefore, = am” is completely accepted in philosophical essays . You are arguing for y ou own point of view, so you have to be in there somewhere! 8) Citations : Philosophy, like all independent disciplines has its preferred style of citation, which for this class will be the newly -updated MLA. See Purdue OWL for the correct style of formatting : https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/2/ The most basic points are the following. W hen you cite an outside source, whether by quoting or relaying an argument you found there, you must cite that source at the end of the sentence using a set of pa rentheses in the following form: …end of your beautiful sentence about Plato (Plato 288) . Here, Plato is the author’s (last) name and 288 is the page from the text you are talking about . For instance, you might write: “Socrates, Plato’s teacher, believed that the most important task is to ‘ Know t hyself’ (Plato 288). ” In-text citations should be used for both direct and indirect quotation. Direct quotation uses the author’s exact words inside quotat ions marks; the citation comes after the closing quotation mark but before the period . For instance, “…end of Plato’s beautiful quote” (Plato 288). Indirect citations talk about an idea you got from the author, but you use your own words to describe it. The in -text citation comes before the period. If the auth or’s name is in the sentence already, you do not need to include it again in the citation. For instance, you might write: “Plato tells that Socrates’ most important task was to know himself (288). ” MLA also requires a separate Works Cited page at the end of the essay. Common MLA forms of citation are: a) Print Book (like your textbook with original writing) : In-text: …(Palmer 54) . Palmer, Donald . Does the Center Hold?: An Introduction to Western Philosophy . 7th ed., McGraw -Hill, 2016 . b) Essay (or Story or Poem) in an edited Collection (like a reader for your course) : In-text: …(Kincaid 306). Kincaid, Jamaica. “Girl. ” The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories, edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306 -07. Department of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Rev. 11 -18 6 In text: …( Coomaraswamy 115) Coomaraswamy, Ananda. “The Mahayana and the =deal of Bodhisattva.” The Ways of Religion, 3rd ed. Edited by Roger Eastman, Oxford UP, 1999, 110 -15. c) Article in a Scholarly Journa l: In-text: …(Bagchi 44). Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu .” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41 -50. d) Scholarly Journ al Arti cle accessed online ( through JSTOR, Etc. ): In-text: …(Best and Marcus 9) . Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. “Surface Reading: An =ntroduction.” Representations , vol. 108, no. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 1 -21. JSTOR, doi:10.1525/rep.2009.108.1.1 e) Translated Print Book : In-text: …(Foucault 100). Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard, Vintage -Random House, 1988. f) Song : In-text : …(Beyoncé , 2016) . Beyoncé. “Pray You Catch Me. ” Lemonade, Parkwood Entertainment, 2016, www.beyonce.com/album/lemonade -visual -album/ . g) Tweet : In-text: …(@tombrokaw ). Department of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Rev. 11 -18 7 @tombrokaw. “SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign. ” Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 a.m., twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320. h) TV Episode in a Series watched on Netflix : In-text : …(“94 Meetings”) . “94 Meet ings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle -Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010. Accessed 4 May 2009. i) YouTube Video : In-text: …(“8 :ot Dog Gadgets”) . “8 :ot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=W blpjSEtELs . j) Online Magazine Article without pages : In-text …(Taylor, “Fitzcarraldo”) . Taylor, Rumsey. “Fitzcarraldo. ” Slant , 13 Jun. 2003, www.slantmagazine.com/film/review/fitzcarraldo/ . Accessed 4 May 2009. Department of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Rev. 11 -18 8 Sample Works C ited in MLA format (may appear at the bottom of last page, or on its own final page) : Works Cited Dean, Cornelia. “Executive on a Mission: Saving the Planet.” The New York Times , 22 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/2007/05/22/science/earth/22ander.html?_r=0. Accessed 12 May 2016. Ebert, Roger. Review of An Inconvenient Truth , directed by Davis Guggenheim. rogerebert.com , 1 June 2006, http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/an -inconvenient -truth -2006. Accessed 15 June 2016. Gowdy, John. “Avoiding Self -organized Extinction: Toward a Co -evolutionary Economics of Sustainability.” International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, vol. 14, no. 1, 2007, pp. 27 -36. An Inconvenient Truth . Directed by Davis Guggenheim, performances by Al Gore and Billy West, Paramount, 2006. Leroux, Marcel. Global Warming: Myth Or Reality?: The Erring Ways of Climatology . Springer, 2005. Revkin, Andrew C. “Clinton on Climate Change.” The New York Times , 17 May 2007, www.nytimes.com/vi deo/world/americas/1194817109438/clinton -on -climate -change.html. Accessed 29 July 2016. Shulte, Bret. “Putting a Price on Pollution.” US News & World Report , vol. 142, no. 17, 14 May 2007, p. 37. Ebsco, Access no: 24984616. Uzawa, Hirofumi. Economic Theo ry and Global Warming . Cambridge UP, 2003. From Purdue OWL: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/12/ Department of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Rev. 11 -18 9 9) Clarity : Finally, we come to the polishing of the essay. Clarity and Mechanics both deal with syntax, or how your individual sentences are put together. Clarity focuses in on how you minimize ambiguity, so it is not a matter of following rules. Like Academic Tone , clarity is something that develops from experience, and you will need to take cues from your readers about when you are not making your point clearly. We all think we have expressed ourselves clearly, but we are often wrong. Clarity is something the author ultimately does not get to judge because it is about the success of c ommunication. Unclear sentences leave your reader with questions about what you mean. You might forget to tell the reader who ‘he’ is or what ‘it’ refers to. You might not finish your thought or f ail to make your quote fit in with your own words. Try to wr ite each sentence knowing why you are writing it, and your clarity will improve. 10) Grammar/ Mechanics : Grammar is the way parts of speech like nouns, pronouns, and verbs combine in person, case, and number to form meaningful phrases. “You is right” is no t unclear , but it is ungrammatical because ‘you’ is a second person pronoun, while ‘is’ is a third person verb. Mechanics are the rules of written language specifically, things like spelling, capitalization, and use of numerals (when to write 2018, rather than twenty -eighteen, for instance). Paradoxically, Grammar and Mechanics are both the least and most important components of an essay. They are the least important because they are all part of the background, not the part of y our reasoning or organ ization . They are the most important because mistakes here remind the reader that they are looking at words rather than absorbing your ideas. They are pebbles in the reader’s shoe and irritating. Word is getting better at catching these all the time, so pa y attention to grammar check (the blue double line or green squiggly line). That’s right, always proofread your paper , which means planning to finish a draft of it early. These small errors can bring your grade down a half letter if you don’t take ti me to fix them. Finally, be sure to put a full headin g and title at the top of your e ssay on the first page and add page numbers including you r last name at the top right. The heading is double -spaced, four lines, left justified: [Document Header] Your Last Name 1 Your Name Professor Leib PHL 2010 -0XX Day Month Year Your Excellent Title Department of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Rev. 11 -18 10 Here is the paper rubric. You will see that all 10 components are laid out here, along with the language that your professor or T As will use to determine whether your work is an A paper, B paper, etc., on each of the components. Opening: 10 -9 points 8 points 7 points 6 & below Thesis/Purpo se 1) Fully articulates what the context of the argument will be; 2) fully articulates in one sentence what “I will argue…” ; 3) Stays on topic, arguing this thesis every step of the way. 1) Generally articulates what the context of the argument will be; 2) fully articulates in one sente nce what “= will argue…”; 3) generally stays on topic, offers some critical analysis, and is not over simplified . 1) Offers little or no context for the argument; 2) vaguely or partially articulates what is being argued; 3) offers little or no critical analysis and/or presents over simplified thinking. 1) offers no context for the argument; 2) may not articulate a primary argument anywhere; 3) offers little or no critical analysis and/or presents over simplified thinking. Organizational Statement 1) Presents a clear & direct statement/framework at the beginning that tells the reader each step the paper will take, often in one sentence; 2) the reader should be able to anticipate how the paper unfolds, step -by -step, and why . 1) Presents a general statement/framew ork at the beginning that tells the reader how the paper will go, often in one sentence; 2) the reader should be able to anticipate how the paper unfolds, step -by -step, but 1) Presents a vague or partial statement/framew ork at the beginning that tells the reader some of the things the paper will discuss, possibly in multiple sentences; 2) the reader may have to infer how the paper will unfold, but may not 1) Presents no statement/framew ork; 2) the reader may understandably be unable to make an inference about how the paper will proceed, or why it should. Department of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Rev. 11 -18 11 may not understand why . understand why it would. Argument: 10 -9 points 8 points 7 points 6 & below Reasoning 1) Train of thought exhibits substantial depth, fullness, and complexity of thought ; 2) Chooses the best evidence to support that train’s path; 3) Expresses views without resorting to discriminatory, inappropriate, or troubling arguments and topics. 1) Train of thought exhibits a preponderance of depth, fullness, and complexity ; 2) Demonstrates general comprehension of the mater ial with less than ideal evidence; 3) Expresses views without resorting to discriminatory, inappropriate, or troubling arguments and topics. 1) Train of thought exhibits little depth, fullness, and/or complexity ; 2) Demonstrates some comprehension of the m aterial with simplistic or repetitive use of evidence; 3) Thinking may express slightly discriminatory, socially offensive, and/or illogical views throughout the paper. 1) Train of thought exhibits no depth, fullness, and/or complexity ; 2) Demonstrates lit tle or no comprehension of the material that is contradictory, repetitive, or irrelevant evidence; 3) Thinking is driven by discriminatory, socially offensive, and/or illogical views. Evidence 1) Seamlessly incorporates and explains the relevance of arguments and quotations from other sources accurately (including some counter -arguments); 2) uses a variety that meet the requirement of the assignment, or according to professor’s instructions ; 3) substantively uses assigned materials as appropriate 1) Incorporates and explains the relevance of arguments and quotations from other sources appropriately ; 2) uses more than one source , technically meet 1) Incorporates arguments and quotations from other sources without appropriate contextualization or explanation of their relevance; 2) uses one source , 1) Fails to identify or include arguments or quotations from outside sources if required , fails to address any counter -argument, and offers little explanation; 2) Department of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Rev. 11 -18 12 the requirements of the assignment, or is in the spirit of the professor’s inst ructions ; 3) substantively uses assigned materials as appropriate technically meet the requirements of the assignment, but is generally perfunctory ; 3) uses assigned materials in a tertiary manner Little or no source evidence is used ; 3) uses assigned materials in a tertiary manner, or fails to cite assigned course materials (i.e., uses internet sources instead ) Organization 1) The argument’s focus is abundantly clear to the reader; 2) paragraphs build upon each other, and logical, fluent transition sentences are used between each step. 1) The argument’s focus is generally clear to the reader; 2) the use of transition sentences lends a sense of progression and coherenc e. 1) The argument’s focus is unclear to the reader; 2) some, mostly formulaic transitions are used, providing little or no sense of progression for the reader. 1) Transitions and sense of progression are absent . Conclusion: 10 -9 points 8 points 7 points 6 & below Implications/ Consequences 1) Offers a clear re -statement of the argument that shows how the thesis has been argued/proved; 2) thinks ‘out loud’ about the next thing to question, assuming the current thesis has been proved; 3) no over simplifications are present. 1) Offers some re – statement of the argument that shows how the thesis has been argued/proved; 2) does not think ‘out loud’ about the next thing to question, assuming the current thesis 1) Simply re -states the thesis with little or no reflection on the meaning of it, or its logical consequences; 2) oversimplified and does not add anything new to the pa per. 1) Offers poor or partial re – statement of the thesis with little or no reflection on the meaning of what was argued, or its logical consequences; 2) oversimplified and does not add Department of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Rev. 11 -18 13 has been proved; 3) one over simplification may be present. anything new to the paper. Disciplinary Concerns: 10 -9 points 8 points 7 points 6 & below Academic Tone 1) The author’s tone is mature, consistent, and not grandiloquent ; 2) specialized terms are appropriately introduced, defined, and used accurately. 1) The author’s tone is usually appropriate ; 2) specialized terms are usually introduced, defined, and used accurately. 1) The author’s tone is inconsistent, and may lapse into colloquial forms of address, like ‘you’ and ‘me’ (recognizing that ‘=’ is always appropriate for philosophical writing); 2) specialized terms are used superficially. 1) The author’s tone is superficial and stereotypical , reading more like oral address than academic essay; 2) specialized terms, if present, are typically misused. Citations 1) Cites and formats sources accurat ely and consistently in text; for this course, we follow the current MLA guidelines: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/ 747/2/ ; 2) includes complete works cited; 3) one or two errors may be present. 1) Generally cites and formats sources accurately, but displays consistency; 2) includes complete works cited; 3) several patters of error may be present. 1) Attempted, but awkward use of citation styles; 2) incomplete work cited or no works cited present; 3) Inaccurate references and/or patterns of error may be present. 1) Fails to cite and format sources accurately, if at all ; 2) no works cited may be present; 3) overall poor attemp t to show consistent citation. Department of Philosophy Florida Atlantic University Rev. 11 -18 14 Syntax: 10 -9 points 8 points 7 points 6 & below Clarity 1) The author consistently phrases their thoughts clearly; 2) as a reader, I do not have to work to understand any sentences . 1) The author usually phrases their thoughts clearly; 2) as a reader, I have to do some work to understand a few sentences. 1) The author is, at times, wordy and may use unclear phrasing/vocabular y; 2) as a reader, I have to do too much work to understand sentences. 1) The author is frequently wordy and frequently uses unclear phrasing/vocabular y; 2) as a reader, I can’t typically follow what the author is saying without feeling unsure of their intended meaning. Grammar/ Mechanics 1) Paper contains very fe w sentence level errors (not including citation issues); 2) No errors obscure the author’s meaning ; 3) full heading, title , page numbers present . 1) Paper contains infrequent sentence level errors (not including citation issues); 2) No erro rs obscure the author’s meaning; 3) missing heading, title, or page, etc. 1) Paper contains a wide range of errors (not including citation issues); 2) One or two errors might obscure the author’s meaning. 1) Contains consistent error patterns that impede comprehension. Approx. Totals: 100 -90 89 -80 79 -70 69 & below Original document created by Dr. Robert Leib , 2017; based on rubric developed by Dr. Jeffrey R. Galin , et al. for Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) at FAU [email protected] ; https://fau.academia.edu/RobertLeib
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