Case Study AssignmentWrite a case study on a policy issue that is pertinent to the general topic. For this assignment, research a case of your choice determined through consultation with your tutor. Some possible cases would be a particular controversy over pollution, natural resource depletion, health effects of environmental degradation, the Kyoto Protocol, a nuclear waste siting, deforestation of an area, or logging in a wilderness protected area. Analyze the case for its moral commitments (principles and judgments about right and wrong), the values that are at stake, and the world view conflicts (if any) at issue. In other words, you will be asked to explain what exactly is at issue, what the key moral principles are, and how each side argues its position. You will then be asked to address the issue and take a side, defending a position on it. Note, that you will need to examine the position against which you are arguing fairly and thoroughly so that you do not merely dismiss it, but demonstrate why it is wrong or insufficient. This commits you to showing why your position is either wrong or a lot stronger than the one you criticize.I have attached the general topic that I chose which is about protecting and conserving elephants. Comments from Prof: “Your proposal is acceptable in principle, in that it is acceptable for you to examine the policies directed at protecting or conserving elephants for your case study. In doing so, however, you will need to demonstrate what beliefs and values are held by the people who create these policies and by those who support it. This means you will need to examine the policies themselves to show both what it specifically says and what it assumes.””For your case study, then, you could examine any number of different situations where there is controversy or a practice you think ought to be defended or critiqued. You just have to ensure that it is a genuine issue in the sense that there is genuine argument. Most people would not argue that there is no environmental problem. So, arguing that there is an environmental problem is probably a non-starter. If you are interested in forestry, for example, you might want to deal with policy arguments for clear-cut logging. You could take a government or industry policy or practice, examine its justifications and critically assess it. Since your proposal is concerned with elephants, you would need to identify a specific practice or policy that defends them or at least tries to deal with the problems that they are facing.”needs to be at around 2000 wordsDo proper APA referencing
Case Study Assignment Write a case study on a policy issue that is pertinent to the general topic. For this assignment, research a case of your choice determined through consultation with your tutor.
Rahim Mazhar Assignment 1 3 Global Threats to Wildlife Wildlife is something as any specie of organism, either plants, animals, or from any other kingdom that lives in its natural environment without interruption by human activities (Kucuk, Guney, Evcin, & Akturk, 2017). Elephants, from higher animal groups and being largest among terrestrial environment, are old companions of man. They have been located randomly in different regions of the world hence used diversely for social, political, religious, and recreational purposes. This specie also enhances the aesthetic beauty of forests (Everett, 2016). Despite such intrinsic value, a significant decline in their population is seen even across Africa. Central Africa and Tanzania have drastically lost more than half of its elephant population. Causes behind such a massive loss are deforestation and climate change as for any extinction, but here the addition of behavioural abuse by humans has also observed (Kopnina, 2016). These include the improper care and treatment of Zoo elephants just because it becomes expensive to care for them keenly. Circus elephants are also the victims of this social abuse; their owners treat them harshly and strictly to make them dutiful. The most astonishing fact seen for such brutal treatment was the domestication of wild elephants by an ancient tradition “Phajaan” in Karen, Thailand. Another such cause is the killing of elephants as a punishment to destroy their crops and sometimes just in fear of any damage of property (Kopnina, 2016). s , concerned authorities have initiated numbers of conservation plans, including management, protection of their natural habitat, sufficient water resources, awareness among people of Africa, claiming that survival of this species is essential for a sustainable ecosystem (Daszak, 2000). They require to trace the chain of hunters that commit poaching, to manage the trade of ivory strictly. All of these measurements are made collaboratively across the borders. An ethical point of view requires that human beings should respect the dignity and existence of every non-human. Nobody has the right to use any animal as their property, even in personal captivity. Due to the close interaction of elephants and humans, community conservational plans must be implemented. References Daszak, P. (2000). Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife– Threats to Biodiversity and Human Health. Science, 287(293), 443–449. doi: 10.1126/science.287.5452.443 Everett, R. D. (1979). The functions of wildlife and their possible use for deriving site selection components. Biological Conservation, 16(3), 207–218. doi: 10.1016/0006-3207(79)90022-3 Kopnina, H. (2016). Wild Animals and Justice: The Case of the Dead Elephant in the Room. Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy, 19(3), 219–235. doi: 10.1080/13880292.2016.1204882 Kucuk, O., Guney, K., Evcin, O., & Akturk, E. (2017). Threat Analysis and Proposed Solutions for Elekdag Wildlife Development Area. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 51(53). doi: 10.5530/ijper.51.3s.56
Case Study Assignment Write a case study on a policy issue that is pertinent to the general topic. For this assignment, research a case of your choice determined through consultation with your tutor.
MARKING RUBRIC FOR PAPERS Christina Hendricks’ courses The following provides a rough guide for what “A” papers, “B” papers, etc., might look like, according to the categories in the “Guidelines for Writing Papers” document. Note that the statements below are not exhaustive for what may occur in each category, but serve as common examples. The most important categories are “Strength of Argument” and “Insight,” though problems in “Organization” can weaken your argument because the reader may not be able to follow or understand it. This rubric is not intended to allow you to calculate your mark for the paper as a whole based on how you did in each category, as marking papers is not mechanical enough to allow for that. Rather, this should be considered a tool to help you think about what should be in your paper before you turn it in, and what you might need to work on for the future. Grade Strength of argument Insight Organization Style & Mechanics A 1. Thesis is supported excellently—the arguments in the essay work well together to support the thesis; the claims in these arguments are themselves supported well 2. No significant objections emerge upon reading, or they are answered well 3. Adequate textual evidence provided for your claims about the text 4. No inaccuracies in discussion of texts, &/or non-standard interpretations defended well 5. Explanation of arguments in texts adequate to clarify the views, or to use them well in your argument, or for audience requirement 1. Creative, original thesis, argument, and interpretations of texts that spark new ideas and questions in the reader beyond what is in the texts and lectures; takes risks and reflects deep thought and effort 2. The insightful thesis, argument, interpretations are supported well and/or fit well with the text(s) 1. Thesis is clear and accurately reflects the main argument in the essay 2. Points are linked in an order that reveals well how they work together to support the thesis 3. Paragraphs are coherent 4. Excellent transitions btwn. paragraphs 5. There is an engaging introduction and a conclusion that rounds out the essay well 1. Few to no typos, spelling, grammatical or punctuation mistakes 2. Style is clear and easy to read; sentences flow well; little to no awkward wording 3. Citations given where needed and formatted consistently (and accurately, if a particular citation format is required) 4. All parts of the topic addressed (if applicable) B 1. Thesis is mostly defended well, but a few important claims in the thesis or in the arguments for it need further support or explanation 2. A minor objection seems immediately clear that weakens the argument, and that should be addressed 3. Adequate textual evidence provided for your claims about the text(s) in most places, but need more in a few places 4. Accurate discussion of claims and arguments from texts, but could use more explanation to clarify the views, or to use them well in your argument, or for audience requirement 5. Controversial or non-standard interpretations of texts need more defense by reference to the texts 1. Thesis, argument, &/or interpretations of texts reflect some original thought, but not as much as there could be 2. There are some issues with how well the creative solution to a proposed problem fits with the text(s) or works as an argument 1. The thesis statement is vague, or the essay argues something slightly different 2. One or two paragraphs could be better organized internally or moved to improve the argument flow 3. Missing some transitions btwn. paragraphs 4. One or two problems with intro or conclusion (e.g., one includes parts of arguments that should be in body of essay) 1. Some typos, spelling, grammatical, or punctuation mistakes 2. A few awkward sentences or words 3. Citations given where needed and formatted consistently (and accurately, if a particular citation format is required) 4. All parts of the topic addressed (if applicable) Grade Strength of argument Insight Organization Style & Mechanics C 1. Some parts of the thesis need further evidence/argument to support them (either textual evidence or other evidence/arguments) 2. Several claims are given too quickly, with little support (by reference to the text or through other arguments) 3. Two or more points in the argument are in tension (though this might be resolved, the essay doesn’t discuss how) 4. Numerous and/or very serious objections to the argument weaken it considerably and need to be addressed 5. A few inaccuracies in the discussion of the texts 6. Controversial or non-standard interpretations of texts not defended adequately 7. Explanation of the texts inadequate to clarify the views, or to use them well in your argument, or for audience requirement 1. The arguments in the essay mainly repeat what was given in the texts and/or class lectures and discussions, rather than reflecting original ideas 2. The essay attempts to provide an original argument, but it is not well supported or explained 1. Thesis is hard to find and/or difficult to understand 2. The essay sometimes goes off track and makes points that are largely disconnected from the main thesis 3. It’s hard to see why the paragraphs are organized in the way they are, though with effort the reader can see how they support the thesis 4. Serious problems with intro or conclusion (e.g., both include arguments that should be in the body of the essay; they don’t read like intro or conclusion at all) 1. Somewhat frequent typos, spelling, grammatical, or punctuation mistakes 2. Numerous awkward sentences and words 3. Some citations not given where needed and/or formatted incorrectly 4. Some parts of the topic not addressed well D or F 1. The points given in the paper do not work to support the thesis, or there are major gaps in the argument where aspects of the thesis are left undefended (whether by reference to the texts, other evidence, or other arguments) 2. It is difficult to tell what you are arguing for and how 3. There are objections that weaken the argument for the thesis so much that thorough revision is required to fix it 4. Parts of the argument are inconsistent with other parts and it’s not clear how this could be resolved without major revision 5. Many points in discussion of texts are inaccurate 6. Controversial interpretations hardly or not defended at all by reference to texts 7. Little to no explanation of the texts to clarify the views, or to use them well in your argument, or for audience requirement 1. The essay attempts to repeat arguments or ideas from texts or lectures/discussions, or attempts to give an original argument, but shows a serious lack of understanding of the material 1. There is not a clear thesis statement 2. Points seem to be listed somewhat randomly rather than having clear transitions and a logical order 3. The essay is not broken up into coherent paragraphs for different points 4. There is no intro or no conclusion; (e.g., the essay may stop seemingly in the middle of an argument) 1. Enough typos, spelling, grammatical or punctuation mistakes to make the essay difficult to read at times 2. Very frequent awkward sentences or words 3.  Few to no citations given where needed and/or formatted incorrectly 4. Several parts of the topic not addressed at all 80% to 100% (A- to A+) Exceptional performance: strong evidence of original thinking; good organization; capacity to analyze and synthesize; superior grasp of subject matter with sound critical evaluations; evidence of extensive knowledge base. 68% to 79% (B- to B+) Competent performance: evidence of grasp of subject matter; some evidence of critical capacity and analytic ability; reasonable understanding of relevant issues; evidence of familiarity with the literature. 50% to 67% (D to C+) Adequate performance: understanding of the subject matter; ability to develop solutions to simple problems in the material; acceptable but uninspired work, not seriously faulty but lacking style and vigour. 00% to 49% (F) Inadequate performance: little or no evidence of understanding of the subject matter; weakness in critical and analytic stills; limited or irrelevant use of the literature.
Case Study Assignment Write a case study on a policy issue that is pertinent to the general topic. For this assignment, research a case of your choice determined through consultation with your tutor.
Running head: protecting and conserving elephants Case Study Protecting and Conserving Elephants August 14, 2020 Introduction From the animal kingdom, elephants are considered the most significant global representatives. They are considered the higher-ordered mammals with complicated social and ethology dynamics, impending abundance in cultural settings and natural landscapes in different locations. Elephants can be beautiful and terrible, depending on human interaction with them. Many anthropologists, political ecologists, and geographers have signified the cultural and social roles of elephants. They are also represented as the religious symbols, as authentic loggers, source of desired ivory, and political insignia. Despite the human fascination with elephants’ charisma, in recent decades, the numbers of elephants have tended to decline rapidly due to the destruction of poaching and habitat (Goldenberg, Douglas-Hamilton, Daballen, &Wittemyer, 2016). CITES Secretariat has focused on this issue and estimated that 25,000 elephants had been rustled in Africa. Laws and Techniques to Conserve Elephants In the year 1978 ESA (Endangered Species Act) of the USA listed African elephants as threatened. However, for a decade, the people did not pay significant attention to this particular problem, and it took a decade for the policymakers to design the African Elephant Conservation Act (Drayman-Weisser, & Hornbeck, 2018). This Act was passed in the year 1988 by US congress. The US Congress also took a severe step in establishing the African Elephant Conservation Fund. Congress is providing millions of dollars to this organization so they can use the money to protect elephants. However, it can be said that it took congress much time to take these steps as, during the decade, almost 50% of species lost their life. Moreover, the Act caused a reduction in illegal ivory import and imposing criminal and civil penalties on culprits. According to this Act, the sport-hunting of the elephant is also restricted (Drayman-Weisser, & Hornbeck, 2018). King, Lala, Nzumu, Mwambingu, & Douglas-Hamilton, (2017) claim that the Endangered Species Act did not provide certain protection to elephants because in between the 1980s to 1990s, about 300,000 elephants in Africa were killed due to ivory tusks. More than 75 percent due to raw ivory gathered through illegal poaching; various weapons used in ivory and political intentions are also involved in killing elephants; all of these factors have contributed to the scarcity of elephants at large. The serious thought behind the establishment of this policy was to protect the elephants and overcome their endangering problem. The animal lovers and wildlife protection communities did not want to lose a precious animal. The funding was being used to raise awareness among people and create specific strategies to protect the elephants from danger. This policy has ulterior motives regarding elephants, but the primary focus is on preventing their carnage, providing protection to their territory, monitoring the numbers of the species, and the rates of their poaching. Some of the other components include ivory trafficking and reducing demand (King et al., 2017). The animal activists have positive thoughts regarding these strategies and elephant conservation act because they believe that the role of elephants in the engineering of the ecosystem is vital, such as the maintenance of mineral-rich clearings in the tropical forest; an essential element for the survival of other species (Drayman-Weisser, T., & Hornbeck, 2018). They are also responsible for the survival of crucial soil nutrients spread at a continental level. The seed dispersion in various regions supports the growth and development of tree species, reducing carbon emissions and protecting the environment from all kinds of harms. The ecological benefits of elephants enhance their importance and encourage the people to protect them because their extinction can also make the survival of other species quite tricky. It can also be the reason for global warming and other environmental issues that can heighten due to trees’ absence. However, this specific policy is a severe reason to human-elephant conflict. For example, Human-elephant Conflict that is known as HEC, involving a human-elephant interaction that is not only complex but also difficult to manage (Henley, & Cook, 2019). The HEC directly influences both the species, i.e., the elephant and human; for instance, communities living near the habitat of elephants are in danger as elephants can attack them and even kill the humans. There are also problems like loss of income and property, significantly reducing the community tolerance for conserving the elephants. This interaction is also bad for elephants and undermines their interaction. This interaction’s greatest threat can be described as antagonism, which upsurges local communities against animal protection. It is crucial for elephant conservation that this issue is entirely resolved or minimized to the extent that it is tolerable for the local communities. Various authorities such as WWF collaborate with various stakeholders, especially managers and wildlife communities, to resolve this issue among humans and elephants. However, they are failing because there is an absence of a problem analysis guide that can aid people in work through the complexities of HEC. Moreover, no specific information can guide humans regarding their interaction with elephants (FWS, 2019). WWF is taking significant steps to reduce HEC by strategic management. They are using the latest tools and technologies, such as installing electric fencing and deterrents to keep the animals away from human communities so that the unfortunate encounters can be avoided. WWF is also taking steps to educate the communities, which can help change humans’ behavioural change and reduce the negative impact. WWF has also developed specific teams that help humans when they have any complex interaction with animals (FWS, 2019). For instance, some of the time, due to the free movement of elephants, the human crops get destroyed. They become quite angry in such situations the teams help the people find alternative earning opportunities and cover financial loss. Moreover, to reduce this HEC impact for the long-term, WWF is working in collaboration with the government and other concerning stakeholders so the root causes can be sorted and resolved. The fundamental problems are fragmentation as well as habitat loss. The authorities must resolve this conflict because, without that, it can be challenging to protect the elephant habitats, and humans will also keep on suffering. Which can generate negative sentiments among them and will never be willing to protect the specie. Exclusionary Methods Other than these Acts, some of the methods have also been adopted to protect and conserve elephants, such as protected zones and ecological strips, and electric fences. Protected zones and Ecological Strips The establishment of protected areas and their efforts of conserving wildlife involves conservationists and wildlife managers to make it possible to separate humans and wildlife (Henley & Cook, 2019). For this purpose, ecological corridors or strips have been discovered that fragmented habituated and isolated protected areas, provide the connection between people, propose them demographic liberation techniques, and inherited flow. These corridors also deal with ecological needs, such as helping people and elephants, avert human-elephant conflicts. In this technique, proper routes are provided for periodic relocation and supporting certain behaviours for water and resources. This technique is getting fame in Asia and Africa, developing measures, and expanding infrastructure in or around the ranges where there are elephants (Henley & Cook, 2019). Electric Fences Farmers have developed some of the physical restrictions, for example, fences full of electricity and channels, to avoid entering elephants into the countryside and habit areas. These physical barriers result in the negative impacts and influence long-term survival such as isolating and fragmenting elephants, unsettling their movement, reducing their food and water intake every season and obstructing inherited flow. Due to the negative impacts of the electric fencing technique, it is not appreciated in Asia. However, in many other areas of the world, this technique is followed to separate humans and wildlife (Markoulli, Lee, Byington, & Felps, 2017). Conservation Critique A debate is also generated that either protection of elephants is an ecological or environmental issue or just a social issue; however, this conflict has prevailed among critics (Kopnina, 2016). Some researchers have identified the contribution of elephants to the health of the environment in several ways and emphasized conservation efforts as necessary. The African elephants are the biggest herbivore across the world; they eat the right amount of plants per day; they contribute to transporting plant material around their guts and drop them off in mounds of dung. This way they help transport and drop off plant material thousands of meters away from where these plants are initially grown. It helps in growing these plants in the forests or other areas at large. The dung of elephants is also a better fertilizer as it is rich in nutrients that allow different types of seeds to sprout and grow (Shaffer, Khadka, Hoek, & Naithani, 2019). The dung of elephants is an excellent source of food for several dung beetles. Other than eating it, dung beetles also bury it under the ground, where it becomes a source of food for other plants. The soil gets nutrients from this dung; therefore, it is observed that elephants play a significant role in the ecosystem as fertilizing and maintaining the population of plants. They help dig wells to access water underground by efficiently using their heavy feet, tusks, and trunk to make deep holes that are enough to tap and take out underground water. These holes help other animals for drinking water. Therefore, they help in the living process of other animals as well (McGrath, 2020). Due to their massive size, elephants also help in clearing the land by tramping vegetation. This clearing helps reach more light to the floor or land of forests and provides plants with a chance to proliferate. As different animals live on different kinds of plants; therefore, elephants contribute to promoting the biodiversity of different species. While walking along the vast area, elephants help to intersperse trees and plants that are much better and less destructive than burning trees. All these techniques have suggested that elephants are essential for the ecosystem (Kopnina, 2016). However, critics only consider their preserving and conversing importance for the sake of wildlife. The rapid decrease of elephants is so alarming that they have now been declared as the endangered animal species that are evading from earth rapidly. Critics do not consider that elephants are contributing to the ecosystem or saving environment. This conflict is still debatable as many people focus on the poaching of elephants or the illegal process of ivory. Scarce studies have made that emphasis on the importance of elephants as the environment saviours. Therefore, the conflict between critics and favorers have remained side by side and sometimes have increased a bit globally (McGrath, 2020). Conclusion The current research on elephants’ protection and conversion has concluded that elephants’ extinction has to be taken and considered seriously as in several areas of Africa and Asia, elephants are enlisted as an endangered animal. Some of the critical issues have been raised by critically analyzing the issue, such as the main problem is killing and poaching elephants to get their ivory that is used for different purposes. Then, the worst social treatment with Zoo or circus elephants leads them towards death by getting continuous torture. Several Acts have been made that deal with all the issues. In several countries, the killing and poaching of elephants have been banned even the importing of elephants have also been restricted. Hefty fines are announced for those who are involved in this illegal activity. The elephants sent to the Zoo are now treated well. However, the human-elephant conflict has also been discussed as it increases with the growing human population and needs to expand agricultural land. These two significant needs create conflict and provide a limited area for elephants to live. Some of the essential methods have also suggested overcoming this issue. An essential part of this research is the conflict between critics and favorers for making this issue an environmental issue. Some of the critical areas have explored, such as elephants’ role in planting and growing new food, digging holes for making well, and these will help in providing water to other animals. However, this study has focused on several important topics regarding the importance of elephants’ protection and conservation. References Drayman-Weisser, T., & Hornbeck, S. (2018). An Art Conservation Perspective: Saving the African Elephant and Ivory Cultural Heritage. Curator: The Museum Journal, 61(1), 161-185. doi: 10.1111/cura.12226 Goldenberg, S., de Silva, S., Rasmussen, H., Douglas-Hamilton, I., &Wittemyer, G. (2014). Controlling for behavioural state reveals social dynamics among male African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Animal Behaviour, 95, 111-119. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.07.002 Goldenberg, S., Douglas-Hamilton, I., Daballen, D., &Wittemyer, G. (2016). Challenges of using behavior to monitor anthropogenic impacts on wildlife: a case study on illegal killing of African elephants. Animal Conservation, 20(3), 215-224. doi: 10.1111/acv.12309 Henley, M., & Cook, R. (2019). The management dilemma: Removing elephants to save large trees. Koedoe, 61(1). doi: 10.4102/koedoe.v61i1.1564 King, L. E., Lala, F., Nzumu, H., Mwambingu, E., & Douglas-Hamilton, I. (2017). Beehive fences as a multidimensional conflict-mitigation tool for farmers coexisting with elephants. Conservation Biology, 31(4), 743-752. doi:10.1111/cobi.12898 Kopnina, H. (2016). Wild Animals and Justice: The Case of the Dead Elephant in the Room. Journal Of International Wildlife Law & Policy, 19(3), 219-235. doi: 10.1080/13880292.2016.1204882 Markoulli, M. P., Lee, C. I., Byington, E., &Felps, W. A. (2017). Mapping Human Resource Management: Reviewing the field and charting future directions. Human Resource Management Review,27(3), 367-396. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2016.10.001 McGrath, M. (2020). Elephant protection to dominate CITES meeting. Retrieved August01,2020, from https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-49372409 Morell, V. (2016). Legalizing ivory trade won’t save elephants, study concludes. Science. doi: 10.1126/science.aah7306 Schiffman, R. (2014). Political stability will save Africa’s forest elephants. New Scientist, 221(2952), 25. doi: 10.1016/s0262-4079(14)60132-9 Shaffer, L. J., Khadka, K. K., Hoek, J. V., & Naithani, K. J. (2019). Human-Elephant Conflict: A Review of Current Management Strategies and Future Directions. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution,6. doi:10.3389/fevo.2018.00235 Wijaya, T. (2019, August 26). Sumatran elephant sanctuary under threat from bridge, port projects. Retrieved August 04, 2020, from https://news.mongabay.com/2019/08/sumatran-elephant-sanctuary-under-threat-from-bridge-port-projects/ FWS. (2019). Human-Elephant Conflict in Asia. Retrieved from fws.gov: https://www.fws.gov/international/pdf/Human-Elephant-Conflict-in-Asia-June2015.pdf




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