After consultation with your tutor, you will identify a general theme and problem that will serve as a focus for your research for your Assignment 3: Position Paper and Assignment 4: Case Study . You will set out a series of questions that will help guide the research and identify the Journal Entries that you will submit. You will need to be aware that there are at least four different areas you could focus on when formulating your research interest: (1) world view; (2) values and the environment; (3) ethics and obligations toward the environment; (4) policy principles. Since your final assignment pertains to a case study, ensure that you see how each of these areas pertains to the analysis of the case you choose.Note, that the case you select should have relevance to issues covered in the course. In other words, you do not want to choose a topic that addresses only a technical issue (e.g., how best to manage a forest for maximum yield). A related topic, however, would be quite appropriate (e.g., an ethical evaluation of a particular forestry company’s policy on maximum sustainable yield of its forest licence areas).This assignment should take no more than a page. These are the basic steps you should follow:Identify a general overall question pertaining to environmental thought or ethics that you want to pursue. Identify a policy issue that you want to research and on which you want to develop a position (e.g., air pollution, nuclear waste disposal sitings, overpopulation, sustainable development practices in the Third World, deforestation). Note that you should be fairly specific when identifying a policy issue, since it will help focus your research interest. It is helpful to choose an issue at some political level of relevance (i.e., local, regional, national or international). Perhaps choose a local issue that your community is dealing with, or, if you are more interested in wider issues, choose a national (e.g., forestry, east coast cod fisheries, water exporting policy) or an international policy issue (e.g., Kyoto Protocol, ozone layer depletion, United States’ and Canadian foreign aid policy).Explain the connection you see between your policy issue and the general question you have. Identify a maximum of three key concepts (e.g., intrinsic value, anthropocentrism, sustainability, animism, mechanism, hierarchy, land pyramid, etc.) that you think will be important to define and defend in making your case.You will be assessed on how clearly you articulate the problem and explain the connection between 1. and 2. Assessment will also involve how well you have identified key concepts and explained your reasons for identifying them.P. S. I have uploaded a sample document just for idea. Please do not use the same topic or content.
After consultation with your tutor, you will identify a general theme and problem that will serve as a focus for your research for your Assignment 3: Position Paper and Assignment 4: Case Study . You
Protecting Biodiversity in Africa Introduction Africa is a habitat to a highly endowed and diverse plants, animals and marine diversity that has significantly given sustenance to ecosystem. It has been critical in ensuring the prosperity of the African economy and has acted as buffer for the climate change. However, for an extended time now, Africa has been experiencing a gross loss of biodiversity. It is being estimated in the coming century, there will be loss above fifty percent of African mammals and birds. The plants and marine plants are also expected to decrease by approximately 30% and quite a significant extinction of plant species (Patton, 2020). To make the matter worse, there is an ongoing menace of loss and degradation of natural habitat, specifically from agricultural expansion. There is a threat of overexploitation of fishery and wildlife species due to poaching and illegal hunting. This loss of Africa biodiversity will have far reaching consequences on people’s livelihood, reduced food security, strained water supply and reduced resilience to extreme circumstances to the poor communities (Ash et al., 2010). This has led to development of policies that are critical in ensuring that the biodiversity intrinsic value is safeguarded, and the continent is able to sustain itself. In efforts to safeguard the sustainability, policies that seek to mitigate this loss to ensure that there is sustainable management and conservation of the biodiversity have been put in place. There have been tremendous efforts in integrating coastal zone and protected area management by the African governments. The policies integrate the development and poverty eradication goals. For instance, the authorities are generating revenues from biodiversity through avenues such as tourism. The obtained earning has been reinvested on managing biodiversity and ameliorating the lives of the local communities. Every species has an intrinsic role and value in ensuring smooth continuum of the plant earth and if neglected there could be dire consequences. Africa has therefore come up with policies that are keen to recognizing, measuring and managing it natural capital and ecosystem to ensure that the biodiversity is protected. (Chapin, Sala, & Huber-Sannwald, 2013). References Ash, N., Blanco, H., Brown, C., Garcia, K., Henrichs, T., & Lucas, N. et al. (2010). Ecosystems and human well-being. Washington, DC: Island Press. Chapin, F. S. I. I. I., Sala, O. E., & Huber-Sannwald, E. (2013). Global Biodiversity in a Changing Environment: Scenarios for the 21st Century. New York, NY: Springer. Patton, M. Q. (2020). Blue Marble Evaluation: Premises and principles. New York: The Guilford Press

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