1-Start your critical reflection paper with a question regarding to Islamic study(for choosing your question, you can review class lectures and readings)2-Layout your thoughts, ideas, and responses to that specific question in the form of personal reflection. It should be TWO Pages in total. PDF Please. MLA and Chicago both are accepted. In an essay format. Font: Times New Roman / Size: 12 / Line spacing: 1.5 No separate title page needed: Just please write your name on the top left side of the first page. And then, please put your question as the title on the first line of the first page. Citation and reference are not needed. The way that you present your question, and your perspective to the question will be evaluate in this assignment.
1-Start your critical reflection paper with a question regarding to Islamic study(for choosing your question, you can review class lectures and readings) 2-Layout your thoughts, ideas, and responses t
Sunni & Shiite October 1 st, 2021 Two Approaches to politics and rule • 10 Differences Between Shia and Sunni Muslims – YouTube • Third Century after Hijra • Sunni : al – Sunna wa’l -Jama’a : the people of the Prophet’s Sunna & Community • Shiite: Supporters of Ali: Muhammad’s charisma continued in the line, and thus each succeeding Imam had an intrinsic authority. • Critic: • Sunni to Shiite: an ancient tradition of divine kingship • Shiite to Sunni: Tradition of Sheykh and the concept of white hair rather than wisdom and considering criterion Reasons Sunni’s Reason for Abu Baker • Surah Al -Lail / The Night • But the righteous will be spared from it .(17) who donate “some of” their wealth only to purify themselves (18) And not [giving] for anyone who has [done him] a favor to be rewarded (19) Shiite’s Reason For Ali • Surah Al -Ma’idah /The Table Spread • Only Allah is your Vali and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor -rate while they bow. (55) What Is your Thought about these two approaches?
1-Start your critical reflection paper with a question regarding to Islamic study(for choosing your question, you can review class lectures and readings) 2-Layout your thoughts, ideas, and responses t
MUHAMMAD AND THE EARLY MUSLIM COMMUNITY FRIDAY, SEP 17 AROUND 610 C.E  How Islam Began -In Ten Minutes -YouTube THE AGE OF IGNORANCE: JAHILIYAH  Yes and No.  If it means illiteracy, uncivilized, uncultured: it is not TRUE  In the Qur’an: in four places we see the term Jahiliyah that does not mean illiteracy or uncivilization. BUT YES IF:  The society of the time of the Muhammad was rude, violent and unbalanced.  Even with all their gods, spirits, shrines, poets, kahins , and elegant tribal, they had no real belief in a transcendent source of personal meaning.  Assabiya : Powerful Group Feeling  Genealogy and Racism MOHAMMAD THE PERSON  Muhammad created human transformation with his characteristics such as kindness, decency and peace;  In the life of the Messenger of Allah, war was forbidden as much as it was possible.  His rules were based on peace. MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET  Muhammad call to be a prophet occurred after he had apparently become a highly disciplined spiritual seeker. That is the vision and the call to “RECITE!!!”  Angel Jibreel Speaks -Thrilling Quran Recitation – YouTube
1-Start your critical reflection paper with a question regarding to Islamic study(for choosing your question, you can review class lectures and readings) 2-Layout your thoughts, ideas, and responses t
1 Basic beliefs of Islam C ontemporary Islam What Islam is and what has passed over Islam Islam in History The Hijra “Migration” or “Emigration ”, No Flight During the pilgrimage season of 620 To Yathrib: Medina: Medinat al -nabi / city of the prophet The Hijra The Islamic lunar calendar Going to something positive more than leaving sometingh negative 1 – helpers : ansar 2 – emigrants: muhajirun Medina 620 – 632 • Constitution of Medina • Certain generalization • Cooperation of all parties • Bounding together by common religious faith • Revolution in Arabian social and political history • Breaking traditions The Jews in Medina • During a Friday worship service in February of 624 Muhammad received an inspiration to turn 180 degrees and faced Mecca. Beyond Arabia Bedouin tribes had significant role in introducing Islam Muhammad’s later Life Continually deepening religious life Stability and patience in difficult time Trouble – prone family life Muhammad’s Death In June 632
1-Start your critical reflection paper with a question regarding to Islamic study(for choosing your question, you can review class lectures and readings) 2-Layout your thoughts, ideas, and responses t
I M AG I N I N G I S L A M 2 Friday, S ep 24, 2021 M U H A M M A D ’ S N I G H T J O U R N E Y A N D A S C E N T I N T O H E A V E N • Near the holy Ka’ba • Gabriel • Buraq • Jerusalem • Meeting with other prophets • Isra ’: journey / mi’raj :ascent T H E E S T A B L I S H M E N T O F M U H A M M A D ’ S R O L E I N I S L A M • Prophet or a poet • Muhammad is a prophet: nabi • Muhammad is an Apostle/messenger: rasul • *All rasuls are nabis , but the reverse is not the case. • He came to transmit the old true message anew and stablished through a universal community ( umma ) T H E Q U R ‘ A N ‘ S D I V I N E M E S S A G E • The main task of Muhammad and the Qur’an is to restore the primordial monotheistic religion of Abraham. • Islam: religion/ islam : surrender to God • The Qur’an restored the purity of the original message from God. • The Qur’an moved from simple and dramatic warning of the Judgment to stories of earlier prophets. The Qur’an as the last divine massage to descent. Clear Arabic tongue: No excuse for missing the point of God’s warning and judging. T H E Q U R ’ A N A N D T H E O T H E R H O L LY B O O K S • The Qur’an moved from simple and dramatic warnings of the judgment to stories of earlier prophets, mostly from the biblical tradition. • where the Biblical narrative affects a sense of immediacy and drama, the Qur’an recites, or often simply refers to, the same stories, in a deliberately didactic manner. In the Qur’an, the Prophet Muhammad reminded of events which transpired in the past and which are not only history, but hierohistory . • Whereas the Biblical heroes are human and fallible, they are represented in the Qur’an as staid models of wisdom, piety and trust in God. • The Patriarchs, Moses and the prophets are significant in the Qur’an purely for the moral lessons they teach Muslims. • The Qur’an has effected a significant change in the Biblical legacy, treating individual persons and events as universal types and symbols. • In this manner, the Qur’an expresses a piety and apologetic approach to the Bible similar to the Jewish and Christian post -Biblical traditions.’ The moral ambiguities which surround the Biblical tales of sibling rivalry and the relations between fathers and sons are absent in the Qur’an. • T he clear and uncompromising command of Allah now directs human behavior. • Allah is not the star player in a human drama, as is the Biblical God. He is above it all now as director and playwright, inserting His comments into the very center of the Script He has written for all people, but particularly for the Arabs. Individual persons diminish in significance before Him , and serve primarily as examples from whom others may benefit. the literary gem of the Qur’an , its “most beautiful of stories”, that of Joseph, is not free of pious asides and admonitions, parenthetical remarks of a sort which distance the reader from the action described. The Qur’an has effected a significant change in the Biblical legacy, treating individual persons and events as universal types and symbols.
1-Start your critical reflection paper with a question regarding to Islamic study(for choosing your question, you can review class lectures and readings) 2-Layout your thoughts, ideas, and responses t
Islam in History part 2 O C T O B E R 4 , 2 0 2 1 The Spread of the Islamic Empire • The Ummayyads were effective rulers and greatly extended their hold over the world: • 1-Their especial goal was the subjugation of the Byzantine and the Damascus caliphs. • 2-Islam firmly was firmly established. • Therefore, by mid -eighth century, the Islamic empire constituted the dominant power system across the arid zone from the Atlantic to the frontiers of India. Mu’awiya the Leader • He was one of the greatest leaders of Islamic history. • He was able to reconcile conflicts and resolve grievances between parties. • He strengthened the central government in Damascus. The Tragedy at Karbala • Battle of Karbala, ( October 10, 680 10th of Moharram ) brief military engagement in which a small party led by al -Ḥ usayn ibn ʿAli, grandson of the Prophet Muhammad and son of Ali, the fourth caliph, was defeated and massacred by an army sent by the Umayyad caliph Yazid. The Shiite Movement • Drew strength from the tragedy of Karbala and attracted new followers who desired to see the Prophet ’s descendants reach their deserved place in the system. • Both Shiite and Kharijite opposition were against Umayyads. The Abbasids The core of the revolutionary movement the swept away the Umayyads was in distant Khurasan, in the northeast. Calling themselves the Abbasids. Al -’Abbas: a paternal uncle of the Prophet. Mawla: one of the house of the Prophet. Important Name in this period of time: Abu Muslim: his forces battling their way to Iraq The Abbasids’ Cultural Contributions • The Abbasid age was the Glorious period of Islamic civilization. • The peak of Abbasid power and creativity under Harun al -Rashid roughly coincided with the period of Charlemagne in the West (800 CE). • Their capital was established in the new city of Baghdad shourtly after revolution. The Abbasid Leadership • The Caliph was the shadow of God on Earth and the Caliph of God.
1-Start your critical reflection paper with a question regarding to Islamic study(for choosing your question, you can review class lectures and readings) 2-Layout your thoughts, ideas, and responses t
P R E – I S L A M I C A R A B I A : B E L I E F S , VA L U E S , WAY O F L I F E A R A B I A N P E N I N S U L A P R I O R T O T H E E M E R G E N C E O F I S L A M T H E S O C I A L S T R U C T U R E A N D E C O N O M Y T R I B E & C L A N L O Y A L T Y R E T A L I A T I O N & P E R S O N A L H O N O R   P A R A S I T E O F T H E C A M E L P O E T R Y Poetry was the major form of artistic expression that the ancient Arabs had. It was more that art. Since its inspiration was believed to be supernatural and its utterance surrounded by mysterious power. Poetry had its roots in religion. A poet is known in Arabic as sha’ir : one who knows because the poet’s knowledge is esoteric knowledge that ordinary people do not possess. P R E – I S L A M I C R E L I G I O N   AL – U Z Z A / A L – L A T / M A N A T    K A ’ B A  T H E H I G H G O D A L L A H : T H E G O D : C R E A T O R A N D S U S T A I N E R M O N O T H E I S T I C R E L I G I O N S
1-Start your critical reflection paper with a question regarding to Islamic study(for choosing your question, you can review class lectures and readings) 2-Layout your thoughts, ideas, and responses t
IMAGINING ISLAM Monday, September 20 Islam Time – line 610 The night of Power 622 The great Hijra 632 Death of Muhammad The Development of Islam 619 CE By 619 CE, the basic features of Islam were fairly developed. 622 CE After 622 in Medina: community integrity, authority in government, judicial, military SALAT : PRAYER ◦ Islam : Submission ◦ Islam is an act and not a thing . ◦ Abd :slave or servant of Allah. ◦ Ibadat :worships ◦ Salat :consisting of several cycles of postures culminating in full bodily prostration with the forehead touching the ground Mosque: Masjid ◦ A mosque, also called masjid, is a place of worship for Muslims. Any act of worship that follows the Islamic rules of prayer can be said to create a mosque, whether or not it takes place in a special building. Domb In the M uslim school of architecture, the domb has the meaning of the goal and the place of reaching the goal that is Allah, and the symbol of Human head. Islamic Art & Architecture Minarat /spire the minarat /spire like two hands has been raised to the sky and the essence of the divine sanctuary in a state of supplication. Like one who raises his/her hands to pray. INSIDE VIEW Mihrab ◦ Mihrab is a semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla, that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and hence the direction that Muslims should face when praying. The wall in which a mihrab appears is thus the “qibla wall“, which is the symbol of the cave Hara ’ . INSIDE OF THE MOSQUE Azan ◦ The Azan (Adhan in Arabic) is an Islamic call delivered by a muezzin (the person who recites the Azan) from the mosque five times a day. The purpose of the Azan is to invite Muslims for obligatory ( farz ) prayers, the salat (or what is also called namaz in north India). ◦ There are a variety of Azans among Sunnis as well as Shiite. ◦ Best Adhan in the world – Muslim Call to Prayer -YouTube Muslims pray five times a day, with their prayers being known as Fajr (dawn), Dhuhr (after midday), Asr (afternoon), Maghrib (after sunset), Isha (nighttime), facing towards Mecca. … The timing of the five prayers are fixed intervals defined by daily astronomical phenomena Ablution/wudu ◦ Health ◦ Spirituality ◦ Salat mat/Prayer rug: ◦ A prayer rug or prayer mat is a piece of fabric, sometimes a pile carpet, used by Muslims and some Christians during prayer. In Islam, a prayer mat is placed between the ground and the worshipper for cleanliness during the various positions of Islamic prayer. These involve prostration and sitting on the ground. SHIITE MUHR/TURBA MISBAHA/TASBIH Qibla ◦ The qibla is the direction towards the Kaaba in the Sacred Mosque in Mecca, in various religious contexts, particularly the direction of prayer for the salat SALAT ARKAN/PILLARS:




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